Al-Baqarah

سورة البقرة

Surah Al-Baqarah

(The Cow)

([1]) Alif Lâm Mîm. الم
([2]) The book about which there is no doubt, guidance for those who guard themselves. ذَلِكَ الْكِتَابُ لَا رَيْبَ فِيهِ هُدًى لِلْمُتَّقِينَ
([3]) Those who believe in realities unseen, who maintain the prayer and give of that which we have provided them. الَّذِينَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِالْغَيْبِ وَيُقِيمُونَ الصَّلَاةَ وَمِمَّا رَزَقْنَاهُمْ يُنْفِقُونَ
([4]) And those who believe in what was sent down to you and what was sent down before you and are certain of the hereafter. وَالَّذِينَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِمَا أُنْزِلَ إِلَيْكَ وَمَا أُنْزِلَ مِنْ قَبْلِكَ وَبِالْآخِرَةِ هُمْ يُوقِنُونَ
([5]) Those are upon guidance from their lord and those are the successful ones. أُولَئِكَ عَلَى هُدًى مِنْ رَبِّهِمْ وَأُولَئِكَ هُمُ الْمُفْلِحُونَ
([6]) As for those who reject, it is the same for them whether you warn them or you do not warn them – they do not believe. إِنَّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا سَوَاءٌ عَلَيْهِمْ أَأَنْذَرْتَهُمْ أَمْ لَمْ تُنْذِرْهُمْ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ
([7]) Allah has put a seal on their hearts and on their hearing and there is a cover over their sight and for them is a painful punishment. خَتَمَ اللهُ عَلَى قُلُوبِهِمْ وَعَلَى سَمْعِهِمْ وَعَلَى أَبْصَارِهِمْ غِشَاوَةٌ وَلَهُمْ عَذَابٌ عَظِيمٌ
([8]) And among the people are those who say: I believe in Allah and in the last day, but they are not believers. وَمِنَ النَّاسِ مَنْ يَقُولُ آمَنَّا بِاللَّهِ وَبِالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ وَمَا هُمْ بِمُؤْمِنِينَ
([9]) They seek to deceive Allah and the believers and they only deceive themselves, but they have no idea. يُخَادِعُونَ اللهَ وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَمَا يَخْدَعُونَ إِلَّا أَنْفُسَهُمْ وَمَا يَشْعُرُونَ
([10]) In their hearts is sickness, so Allah increases their sickness, and for them is a painful punishment because of their lying ways. فِي قُلُوبِهِمْ مَرَضٌ فَزَادَهُمُ اللهُ مَرَضًا وَلَهُمْ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ بِمَا كَانُوا يَكْذِبُونَ
([11]) And when it is said to them: Do not make corruption in the land they say: But we are reformers. وَإِذَا قِيلَ لَهُمْ لَا تُفْسِدُوا فِي الْأَرْضِ قَالُوا إِنَّمَا نَحْنُ مُصْلِحُونَ
([12]) They are surely the corrupters, but they have no idea. الَا إِنَّهُمْ هُمُ الْمُفْسِدُونَ وَلَكِنْ لَا يَشْعُرُونَ
([13]) And when it is said to them: Believe as the people believe they say: Should we believe as the fools believe? It is surely they who are the fools, but they do not know. وَإِذَا قِيلَ لَهُمْ آمِنُوا كَمَا آمَنَ النَّاسُ قَالُوا أَنُؤْمِنُ كَمَا آمَنَ السُّفَهَاءُ أَلَا إِنَّهُمْ هُمُ السُّفَهَاءُ وَلَكِنْ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ
([14]) And when they meet the believers they say: We believe. But, when they are alone with their evil ones they say: We are definitely with you; we were only mocking. وَإِذَا لَقُوا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا قَالُوا آمَنَّا وَإِذَا خَلَوْا إِلَى شَيَاطِينِهِمْ قَالُوا إِنَّا مَعَكُمْ إِنَّمَا نَحْنُ مُسْتَهْزِئُونَ
([15]) Allah makes a mockery of them and gives them space to transgress more, lost. اللهُ يَسْتَهْزِئُ بِهِمْ وَيَمُدُّهُمْ فِي طُغْيَانِهِمْ يَعْمَهُونَ
([16]) These are the ones who sold out guidance for misguidance so their exchange brought no profit nor were they guided. أُولَئِكَ الَّذِينَ اشْتَرَوُا الضَّلَالَةَ بِالْهُدَى فَمَا رَبِحَتْ تِجَارَتُهُمْ وَمَا كَانُوا مُهْتَدِينَ
([17]) They are like one who built a fire and then when it lit up all around him, Allah took away their light and left them in darkness, unable to see. مَثَلُهُمْ كَمَثَلِ الَّذِي اسْتَوْقَدَ نَارًا فَلَمَّا أَضَاءَتْ مَا حَوْلَهُ ذَهَبَ اللهُ بِنُورِهِمْ وَتَرَكَهُمْ فِي ظُلُمَاتٍ لَا يُبْصِرُونَ
([18]) Deaf, dumb and blind so they never return. صُمٌّ بُكْمٌ عُمْيٌ فَهُمْ لَا يَرْجِعُونَ
([19]) Or like a thunderstorm in the sky in which are layers of darkness, thunder and lightning. They stick their fingers in their ears from the thunder, fearful of death, and Allah surrounds the rejecters. أَوْ كَصَيِّبٍ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ فِيهِ ظُلُمَاتٌ وَرَعْدٌ وَبَرْقٌ يَجْعَلُونَ أَصَابِعَهُمْ فِي آذَانِهِمْ مِنَ الصَّوَاعِقِ حَذَرَ الْمَوْتِ وَاللهُ مُحِيطٌ بِالْكَافِرِينَ
([20]) The lightning nearly blinds them. Whenever it provides light for them they walk in it, but whenever it covers them in darkness they stand still. And if Allah willed he would take away their hearing and their sight. Allah has absolute power over everything. يَكَادُ الْبَرْقُ يَخْطَفُ أَبْصَارَهُمْ كُلَّمَا أَضَاءَ لَهُمْ مَشَوْا فِيهِ وَإِذَا أَظْلَمَ عَلَيْهِمْ قَامُوا وَلَوْ شَاءَ اللهُ لَذَهَبَ بِسَمْعِهِمْ وَأَبْصَارِهِمْ إِنَّ اللهَ عَلَى كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ
([21]) O people! Worship your lord who created you and those before you that you may be vigilant. يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ اعْبُدُوا رَبَّكُمُ الَّذِي خَلَقَكُمْ وَالَّذِينَ مِنْ قَبْلِكُمْ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَتَّقُونَ
([22]) The one who made the earth bedding and the sky a structure and sent down water from the sky and brought forth thereby fruits as sustenance for you – so do not attribute equals to Allah though you know. الَّذِي جَعَلَ لَكُمُ الْأَرْضَ فِرَاشًا وَالسَّمَاءَ بِنَاءً وَأَنْزَلَ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ مَاءً فَأَخْرَجَ بِهِ مِنَ الثَّمَرَاتِ رِزْقًا لَكُمْ فَلَا تَجْعَلُوا لِلَّهِ أَنْدَادًا وَأَنْتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ
([23]) And if you are in doubt about what we have sent down upon our slave, then bring a single chapter like it and call whoever you can to support you against Allah, if you are correct. وَإِنْ كُنْتُمْ فِي رَيْبٍ مِمَّا نَزَّلْنَا عَلَى عَبْدِنَا فَأْتُوا بِسُورَةٍ مِنْ مِثْلِهِ وَادْعُوا شُهَدَاءَكُمْ مِنْ دُونِ اللهِ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ صَادِقِينَ
([24]) So if you do not do it – and you will never do it – then beware of the fire whose fuel is people and stones which is prepared for the rejecters. فَإِنْ لَمْ تَفْعَلُوا وَلَنْ تَفْعَلُوا فَاتَّقُوا النَّارَ الَّتِي وَقُودُهَا النَّاسُ وَالْحِجَارَةُ أُعِدَّتْ لِلْكَافِرِينَ
([25]) And give glad tidings to those who believe and act righteously that for them are gardens below which rivers flow. Whenever they are given provision from a type of fruit they say: This is what we were given before. And they are brought things of similar appearance, and they have therein pure spouses and they are there forever. وَبَشِّرِ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ أَنَّ لَهُمْ جَنَّاتٍ تَجْرِي مِنْ تَحْتِهَا الْأَنْهَارُ كُلَّمَا رُزِقُوا مِنْهَا مِنْ ثَمَرَةٍ رِزْقًا قَالُوا هَذَا الَّذِي رُزِقْنَا مِنْ قَبْلُ وَأُتُوا بِهِ مُتَشَابِهًا وَلَهُمْ فِيهَا أَزْوَاجٌ مُطَهَّرَةٌ وَهُمْ فِيهَا خَالِدُونَ
([26]) Allah does not shy from using any analogy, be it a mosquito or something more. As for those who believe, they know that it is the truth from their lord. But as for those who reject, they say: What did Allah intend with this analogy? Allah misleads many therewith and guides many therewith, but he misleads none with it except the wicked. إِنَّ اللهَ لَا يَسْتَحْيِي أَنْ يَضْرِبَ مَثَلًا مَا بَعُوضَةً فَمَا فَوْقَهَا فَأَمَّا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا فَيَعْلَمُونَ أَنَّهُ الْحَقُّ مِنْ رَبِّهِمْ وَأَمَّا الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا فَيَقُولُونَ مَاذَا أَرَادَ اللهُ بِهَذَا مَثَلًا يُضِلُّ بِهِ كَثِيرًا وَيَهْدِي بِهِ كَثِيرًا وَمَا يُضِلُّ بِهِ إِلَّا الْفَاسِقِينَ
([27]) Those who breach Allah’s covenant after its confirmation, and split what Allah commanded should be connected, and spread corruption in the land. These are the ones who lose. الَّذِينَ يَنْقُضُونَ عَهْدَ اللهِ مِنْ بَعْدِ مِيثَاقِهِ وَيَقْطَعُونَ مَا أَمَرَ اللهُ بِهِ أَنْ يُوصَلَ وَيُفْسِدُونَ فِي الْأَرْضِ أُولَئِكَ هُمُ الْخَاسِرُونَ
([28]) How can you reject Allah though you were lifeless and he brought you to life, then he causes you to die, then to live again and then to him you are returned? كَيْفَ تَكْفُرُونَ بِاللَّهِ وَكُنْتُمْ أَمْوَاتًا فَأَحْيَاكُمْ ثُمَّ يُمِيتُكُمْ ثُمَّ يُحْيِيكُمْ ثُمَّ إِلَيْهِ تُرْجَعُونَ
([29]) He is the one who created for you all that is in the earth, then he dealt with the heavens and fashioned them as seven, and he is omniscient. هُوَ الَّذِي خَلَقَ لَكُمْ مَا فِي الْأَرْضِ جَمِيعًا ثُمَّ اسْتَوَى إِلَى السَّمَاءِ فَسَوَّاهُنَّ سَبْعَ سَمَاوَاتٍ وَهُوَ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمٌ
([30]) And when your lord said to the angels: I will make a successor on earth. They said: Will you place therein those who spread corruption therein and spill blood while we exalt you with your praise and reserve our utmost reverence for you? He said: I know that which you do not know. وَإِذْ قَالَ رَبُّكَ لِلْمَلَائِكَةِ إِنِّي جَاعِلٌ فِي الْأَرْضِ خَلِيفَةً قَالُوا أَتَجْعَلُ فِيهَا مَنْ يُفْسِدُ فِيهَا وَيَسْفِكُ الدِّمَاءَ وَنَحْنُ نُسَبِّحُ بِحَمْدِكَ وَنُقَدِّسُ لَكَ قَالَ إِنِّي أَعْلَمُ مَا لَا تَعْلَمُونَ
([31]) And he taught Adam all of the names. Then, he showed them to the angels and said: Inform me of the names of these if you are correct. وَعَلَّمَ آدَمَ الْأَسْمَاءَ كُلَّهَا ثُمَّ عَرَضَهُمْ عَلَى الْمَلَائِكَةِ فَقَالَ أَنْبِئُونِي بِأَسْمَاءِ هَؤُلَاءِ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ صَادِقِينَ
([32]) They said: Exalted are you. We have no knowledge except what you have taught us. You are surely the knower, the wise. قَالُوا سُبْحَانَكَ لَا عِلْمَ لَنَا إِلَّا مَا عَلَّمْتَنَا إِنَّكَ أَنْتَ الْعَلِيمُ الْحَكِيمُ
([33]) He said: O Âdam, inform them of their names. So, when he informed them of their names, he said: Did I not say to you that I know what is hidden [from you] in the heavens and the earth and I know that which you show openly and that which you have been hiding? قَالَ يَا آدَمُ أَنْبِئْهُمْ بِأَسْمَائِهِمْ فَلَمَّا أَنْبَأَهُمْ بِأَسْمَائِهِمْ قَالَ أَلَمْ أَقُلْ لَكُمْ إِنِّي أَعْلَمُ غَيْبَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَأَعْلَمُ مَا تُبْدُونَ وَمَا كُنْتُمْ تَكْتُمُونَ
([34]) And when we said to the angels: Prostrate to Âdam. So they prostrated, all except Iblîs. He refused, was arrogant, and was among the rejecters. وَإِذْ قُلْنَا لِلْمَلَائِكَةِ اسْجُدُوا لِآدَمَ فَسَجَدُوا إِلَّا إِبْلِيسَ أَبَى وَاسْتَكْبَرَ وَكَانَ مِنَ الْكَافِرِينَ
([35]) We said: O Âdam, live you and your spouse in the garden and eat freely therefrom wherever you wish, but do not approach this tree or you will both be among the wrongdoers. وَقُلْنَا يَا آدَمُ اسْكُنْ أَنْتَ وَزَوْجُكَ الْجَنَّةَ وَكُلَا مِنْهَا رَغَدًا حَيْثُ شِئْتُمَا وَلَا تَقْرَبَا هَذِهِ الشَّجَرَةَ فَتَكُونَا مِنَ الظَّالِمِينَ
([36]) Then Shaytân caused them to slip up therein and removed the two of them from the state they had been in. And we said: Get down (pl.), enemies to one another. And for you is a place to settle on earth and provision for a while. فَأَزَلَّهُمَا الشَّيْطَانُ عَنْهَا فَأَخْرَجَهُمَا مِمَّا كَانَا فِيهِ وَقُلْنَا اهْبِطُوا بَعْضُكُمْ لِبَعْضٍ عَدُوٌّ وَلَكُمْ فِي الْأَرْضِ مُسْتَقَرٌّ وَمَتَاعٌ إِلَى حِينٍ
([37]) Then Âdam received some words from his lord, who then accepted his repentance – he is ever-accepting of repentance, merciful. فَتَلَقَّى آدَمُ مِنْ رَبِّهِ كَلِمَاتٍ فَتَابَ عَلَيْهِ إِنَّهُ هُوَ التَّوَّابُ الرَّحِيمُ
([38]) We said: Get down from it all of you and when guidance comes to you from me, whoever follows my guidance will experience no fear, nor will they grieve. قُلْنَا اهْبِطُوا مِنْهَا جَمِيعًا فَإِمَّا يَأْتِيَنَّكُمْ مِنِّي هُدًى فَمَنْ تَبِعَ هُدَايَ فَلَا خَوْفٌ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلَا هُمْ يَحْزَنُونَ
([39]) As for those who reject and deny our signs, these are bound to the fire and therein forever. وَالَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا وَكَذَّبُوا بِآيَاتِنَا أُولَئِكَ أَصْحَابُ النَّارِ هُمْ فِيهَا خَالِدُونَ
([40]) O Children of Isrâ’îl, remember the good which I gave to you and fulfill your covenant with me so I fulfill my covenant with you. And it is I of whose displeasure you should beware. يَا بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ اذْكُرُوا نِعْمَتِيَ الَّتِي أَنْعَمْتُ عَلَيْكُمْ وَأَوْفُوا بِعَهْدِي أُوفِ بِعَهْدِكُمْ وَإِيَّايَ فَارْهَبُونِ
([41]) And believe in that which I have sent down confirming that which is in your possession, and do not be the first to reject it, and do not sell my signs for a paltry sum. And make me the object of your vigilance. وَآمِنُوا بِمَا أَنْزَلْتُ مُصَدِّقًا لِمَا مَعَكُمْ وَلَا تَكُونُوا أَوَّلَ كَافِرٍ بِهِ وَلَا تَشْتَرُوا بِآيَاتِي ثَمَنًا قَلِيلًا وَإِيَّايَ فَاتَّقُونِ
([42]) And do not conflate (mix) truth with falsehood nor conceal the truth, though you know. وَلَا تَلْبِسُوا الْحَقَّ بِالْبَاطِلِ وَتَكْتُمُوا الْحَقَّ وَأَنْتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ
([43]) And maintain the prayer, give the Zakâh and bow down with those who bow down. وَأَقِيمُوا الصَّلَاةَ وَآتُوا الزَّكَاةَ وَارْكَعُوا مَعَ الرَّاكِعِينَ
([44]) Do you order people to righteousness but forget yourselves? While you recite the book? Will you not use reason? أَتَأْمُرُونَ النَّاسَ بِالْبِرِّ وَتَنْسَوْنَ أَنْفُسَكُمْ وَأَنْتُمْ تَتْلُونَ الْكِتَابَ أَفَلَا تَعْقِلُونَ
([45]) And seek help through patience and prayer. It is surely something difficult, but not for the humble and focused. وَاسْتَعِينُوا بِالصَّبْرِ وَالصَّلَاةِ وَإِنَّهَا لَكَبِيرَةٌ إِلَّا عَلَى الْخَاشِعِينَ
([46]) Those who realize that they will meet their lord and that unto him they are returning. الَّذِينَ يَظُنُّونَ أَنَّهُمْ مُلَاقُو رَبِّهِمْ وَأَنَّهُمْ إِلَيْهِ رَاجِعُونَ
([47]) O Children of Isrâ’îl, remember the good which I gave to you and that I favored you over the nations. يَا بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ اذْكُرُوا نِعْمَتِيَ الَّتِي أَنْعَمْتُ عَلَيْكُمْ وَأَنِّي فَضَّلْتُكُمْ عَلَى الْعَالَمِينَ
([48]) And guard yourselves against a day when no soul can avail another at all, nor will intercession be accepted from any of them, nor any compensation be taken from them and they will not be helped. وَاتَّقُوا يَوْمًا لَا تَجْزِي نَفْسٌ عَنْ نَفْسٍ شَيْئًا وَلَا يُقْبَلُ مِنْهَا شَفَاعَةٌ وَلَا يُؤْخَذُ مِنْهَا عَدْلٌ وَلَا هُمْ يُنْصَرُونَ
([49]) And when we rescued you from Pharaoh’s people who subjected you to the worst punishments. They slaughtered your sons but kept your women alive – and in that was a huge trial from your lord. وَإِذْ نَجَّيْنَاكُمْ مِنْ آلِ فِرْعَوْنَ يَسُومُونَكُمْ سُوءَ الْعَذَابِ يُذَبِّحُونَ أَبْنَاءَكُمْ وَيَسْتَحْيُونَ نِسَاءَكُمْ وَفِي ذَلِكُمْ بَلَاءٌ مِنْ رَبِّكُمْ عَظِيمٌ
([50]) And when we parted the sea for you, rescued you and drowned the people of Pharaoh as you watched. وَإِذْ فَرَقْنَا بِكُمُ الْبَحْرَ فَأَنْجَيْنَاكُمْ وَأَغْرَقْنَا آلَ فِرْعَوْنَ وَأَنْتُمْ تَنْظُرُونَ
([51]) And when we appointed for Mûsâ forty nights, then you chose the calf when he had gone and you were wrongdoers. وَإِذْ وَاعَدْنَا مُوسَى أَرْبَعِينَ لَيْلَةً ثُمَّ اتَّخَذْتُمُ الْعِجْلَ مِنْ بَعْدِهِ وَأَنْتُمْ ظَالِمُونَ
([52]) Then we pardoned you after that so you would give thanks. ثُمَّ عَفَوْنَا عَنْكُمْ مِنْ بَعْدِ ذَلِكَ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَشْكُرُونَ
([53]) And when we gave Mûsâ the book and the criterion so that you may be guided. وَإِذْ آتَيْنَا مُوسَى الْكِتَابَ وَالْفُرْقَانَ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَهْتَدُونَ
([54]) And when Mûsâ said to his people: O people, you have surely wronged yourselves by choosing the calf, so repent to your maker and kill [among] yourselves. That is best for you with the one who first created you and that he may accept your repentance. Surely, he is ever-accepting of repentance, very merciful. وَإِذْ قَالَ مُوسَى لِقَوْمِهِ يَا قَوْمِ إِنَّكُمْ ظَلَمْتُمْ أَنْفُسَكُمْ بِاتِّخَاذِكُمُ الْعِجْلَ فَتُوبُوا إِلَى بَارِئِكُمْ فَاقْتُلُوا أَنْفُسَكُمْ ذَلِكُمْ خَيْرٌ لَكُمْ عِنْدَ بَارِئِكُمْ فَتَابَ عَلَيْكُمْ إِنَّهُ هُوَ التَّوَّابُ الرَّحِيمُ
([55]) And when you said: O Mûsâ, we will not believe you until we see Allah openly. So you were taken by a thunderbolt as you watched. وَإِذْ قُلْتُمْ يَا مُوسَى لَنْ نُؤْمِنَ لَكَ حَتَّى نَرَى اللهَ جَهْرَةً فَأَخَذَتْكُمُ الصَّاعِقَةُ وَأَنْتُمْ تَنْظُرُونَ
([56]) Then we resurrected you after your death so that you would give thanks. ثُمَّ بَعَثْنَاكُمْ مِنْ بَعْدِ مَوْتِكُمْ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَشْكُرُونَ
([57]) And we shaded you with clouds and sent down for you manna and quail. Eat of the good things we have provided for you. And they did not wrong us, but they only wronged themselves. وَظَلَّلْنَا عَلَيْكُمُ الْغَمَامَ وَأَنْزَلْنَا عَلَيْكُمُ الْمَنَّ وَالسَّلْوَى كُلُوا مِنْ طَيِّبَاتِ مَا رَزَقْنَاكُمْ وَمَا ظَلَمُونَا وَلَكِنْ كَانُوا أَنْفُسَهُمْ يَظْلِمُونَ
([58]) And when we said: Enter this town and eat therefrom wherever you wish and as you wish, but enter the gate bowing, and say: Nullify our sins, so that we forgive you for your misdeeds and we will grant increase to the doers of good. وَإِذْ قُلْنَا ادْخُلُوا هَذِهِ الْقَرْيَةَ فَكُلُوا مِنْهَا حَيْثُ شِئْتُمْ رَغَدًا وَادْخُلُوا الْبَابَ سُجَّدًا وَقُولُوا حِطَّةٌ نَغْفِرْ لَكُمْ خَطَايَاكُمْ وَسَنَزِيدُ الْمُحْسِنِينَ
([59]) But the wrongdoers substituted a statement different from what was said to them, so we sent down upon the wrongdoers a punishment from above for their wicked actions. فَبَدَّلَ الَّذِينَ ظَلَمُوا قَوْلًا غَيْرَ الَّذِي قِيلَ لَهُمْ فَأَنْزَلْنَا عَلَى الَّذِينَ ظَلَمُوا رِجْزًا مِنَ السَّمَاءِ بِمَا كَانُوا يَفْسُقُونَ
([60]) And when Mûsâ sought water for his people, so we said: Strike the stone with your stick. Then twelve springs burst forth from it and each tribe knew their place to drink. Eat and drink from Allah’s sustenance and do not exert your efforts in spreading corruption in the land. وَإِذِ اسْتَسْقَى مُوسَى لِقَوْمِهِ فَقُلْنَا اضْرِبْ بِعَصَاكَ الْحَجَرَ فَانْفَجَرَتْ مِنْهُ اثْنَتَا عَشْرَةَ عَيْنًا قَدْ عَلِمَ كُلُّ أُنَاسٍ مَشْرَبَهُمْ كُلُوا وَاشْرَبُوا مِنْ رِزْقِ اللهِ وَلَا تَعْثَوْا فِي الْأَرْضِ مُفْسِدِينَ
([61]) And when you said: O Mûsâ, we cannot bear the same food all the time so call upon your lord for us so he may bring forth for us from that which the earth produces, some of its herbs, its cucumbers, its grains, its lentils and its onions. He said: Do you seek that which is inferior in place of that which is better? Go down to any town and you will find what you have asked for. And they were covered with humiliation and wretchedness and they returned with anger from Allah. That is because they used to reject Allah’s signs and kill the prophets without right – because of their disobedience and transgression of bounds. وَإِذْ قُلْتُمْ يَا مُوسَى لَنْ نَصْبِرَ عَلَى طَعَامٍ وَاحِدٍ فَادْعُ لَنَا رَبَّكَ يُخْرِجْ لَنَا مِمَّا تُنْبِتُ الْأَرْضُ مِنْ بَقْلِهَا وَقِثَّائِهَا وَفُومِهَا وَعَدَسِهَا وَبَصَلِهَا قَالَ أَتَسْتَبْدِلُونَ الَّذِي هُوَ أَدْنَى بِالَّذِي هُوَ خَيْرٌ اهْبِطُوا مِصْرًا فَإِنَّ لَكُمْ مَا سَأَلْتُمْ وَضُرِبَتْ عَلَيْهِمُ الذِّلَّةُ وَالْمَسْكَنَةُ وَبَاءُوا بِغَضَبٍ مِنَ اللهِ ذَلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمْ كَانُوا يَكْفُرُونَ بِآيَاتِ اللهِ وَيَقْتُلُونَ النَّبِيِّينَ بِغَيْرِ الْحَقِّ ذَلِكَ بِمَا عَصَوْا وَكَانُوا يَعْتَدُونَ
([62]) Surely, those who have believed, as well as the Jews, the Christians and the Sabians – whoever believed in Allah and the last day and acted righteously – for all of these their reward is with their lord, and they will experience no fear nor will they grieve. إِنَّ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَالَّذِينَ هَادُوا وَالنَّصَارَى وَالصَّابِئِينَ مَنْ آمَنَ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ وَعَمِلَ صَالِحًا فَلَهُمْ أَجْرُهُمْ عِنْدَ رَبِّهِمْ وَلَا خَوْفٌ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلَا هُمْ يَحْزَنُونَ
([63]) And when we took the covenant from you and lifted the mountain over you [and commanded]: Take what we have given you firmly and remember its contents so that you may become vigilant. وَإِذْ أَخَذْنَا مِيثَاقَكُمْ وَرَفَعْنَا فَوْقَكُمُ الطُّورَ خُذُوا مَا آتَيْنَاكُمْ بِقُوَّةٍ وَاذْكُرُوا مَا فِيهِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَتَّقُونَ
([64]) But then you turned away after that and were it not for the generosity of Allah toward you and his mercy, you would have been among those who lose. ثُمَّ تَوَلَّيْتُمْ مِنْ بَعْدِ ذَلِكَ فَلَوْلَا فَضْلُ اللهِ عَلَيْكُمْ وَرَحْمَتُهُ لَكُنْتُمْ مِنَ الْخَاسِرِينَ
([65]) And you know of those among you who transgressed in the Sabbath, so we said to them: Be apes, despised. وَلَقَدْ عَلِمْتُمُ الَّذِينَ اعْتَدَوْا مِنْكُمْ فِي السَّبْتِ فَقُلْنَا لَهُمْ كُونُوا قِرَدَةً خَاسِئِينَ
([66]) So we made it an example for those present and those to come and an admonition to the vigilant. فَجَعَلْنَاهَا نَكَالًا لِمَا بَيْنَ يَدَيْهَا وَمَا خَلْفَهَا وَمَوْعِظَةً لِلْمُتَّقِينَ
([67]) And when Musa said to his people: Allah commands you to slaughter a cow. They said: Are you making fun of us? He said: I seek refuge in Allah that I should be among the ignorant. وَإِذْ قَالَ مُوسَى لِقَوْمِهِ إِنَّ اللهَ يَأْمُرُكُمْ أَنْ تَذْبَحُوا بَقَرَةً قَالُوا أَتَتَّخِذُنَا هُزُوًا قَالَ أَعُوذُ بِاللَّهِ أَنْ أَكُونَ مِنَ الْجَاهِلِينَ
([68]) They said: Call upon your lord to clarify for us what it is. He said: He says that it is a cow neither old nor very young but between the two, so do as you have been ordered. قَالُوا ادْعُ لَنَا رَبَّكَ يُبَيِّنْ لَنَا مَا هِيَ قَالَ إِنَّهُ يَقُولُ إِنَّهَا بَقَرَةٌ لَا فَارِضٌ وَلَا بِكْرٌ عَوَانٌ بَيْنَ ذَلِكَ فَافْعَلُوا مَا تُؤْمَرُونَ
([69]) They said: Call upon your lord to clarify for us what color it is. He said: He says that it is a yellow cow, of a bright color, very pleasing to any who see it. قَالُوا ادْعُ لَنَا رَبَّكَ يُبَيِّنْ لَنَا مَا لَوْنُهَا قَالَ إِنَّهُ يَقُولُ إِنَّهَا بَقَرَةٌ صَفْرَاءُ فَاقِعٌ لَوْنُهَا تَسُرُّ النَّاظِرِينَ
([70]) They said: Call upon your lord to clarify for us what it is. The cows all look the same to us. And, if Allah wills, we will be guided (to it). قَالُوا ادْعُ لَنَا رَبَّكَ يُبَيِّنْ لَنَا مَا هِيَ إِنَّ الْبَقَرَ تَشَابَهَ عَلَيْنَا وَإِنَّا إِنْ شَاءَ اللهُ لَمُهْتَدُونَ
([71]) He said: He says that it is a cow not broken to plow the land or to water the fields, of sound body without a single blemish. They said: Now you have brought the truth. So they sacrificed it, but they nearly did not do so. قَالَ إِنَّهُ يَقُولُ إِنَّهَا بَقَرَةٌ لَا ذَلُولٌ تُثِيرُ الْأَرْضَ وَلَا تَسْقِي الْحَرْثَ مُسَلَّمَةٌ لَا شِيَةَ فِيهَا قَالُوا الْآنَ جِئْتَ بِالْحَقِّ فَذَبَحُوهَا وَمَا كَادُوا يَفْعَلُونَ
([72]) And when [one of] you killed someone and you disputed about it – and Allah is the revealer of that which you were hiding. وَإِذْ قَتَلْتُمْ نَفْسًا فَادَّارَأْتُمْ فِيهَا وَاللهُ مُخْرِجٌ مَا كُنْتُمْ تَكْتُمُونَ
([73]) We said: Strike him with a piece of it. Thus, we bring the dead to life and he shows you his signs that you may think. فَقُلْنَا اضْرِبُوهُ بِبَعْضِهَا كَذَلِكَ يُحْيِ اللهُ الْمَوْتَى وَيُرِيكُمْ آيَاتِهِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَعْقِلُونَ
([74]) Then, your hearts became hard after that, like stones or even harder, for there are some stones from which rivers burst forth, and others split open and water comes out of them, and others fall down in fear of Allah, and Allah is never unmindful of what you do. ثُمَّ قَسَتْ قُلُوبُكُمْ مِنْ بَعْدِ ذَلِكَ فَهِيَ كَالْحِجَارَةِ أَوْ أَشَدُّ قَسْوَةً وَإِنَّ مِنَ الْحِجَارَةِ لَمَا يَتَفَجَّرُ مِنْهُ الْأَنْهَارُ وَإِنَّ مِنْهَا لَمَا يَشَّقَّقُ فَيَخْرُجُ مِنْهُ الْمَاءُ وَإِنَّ مِنْهَا لَمَا يَهْبِطُ مِنْ خَشْيَةِ اللهِ وَمَا اللهُ بِغَافِلٍ عَمَّا تَعْمَلُونَ
([75]) (So) do you still hope that they could join you in belief even after a group among them used to hear the speech of Allah and then distort it after they had understood it, knowingly? أَفَتَطْمَعُونَ أَنْ يُؤْمِنُوا لَكُمْ وَقَدْ كَانَ فَرِيقٌ مِنْهُمْ يَسْمَعُونَ كَلَامَ اللهِ ثُمَّ يُحَرِّفُونَهُ مِنْ بَعْدِ مَا عَقَلُوهُ وَهُمْ يَعْلَمُونَ
([76]) And when they meet the believers they say: We believe. But when they are alone with each other they say: Do you tell them about what Allah has taught you so they can use it to argue against you before your lord? Will you not think? وَإِذَا لَقُوا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا قَالُوا آمَنَّا وَإِذَا خَلَا بَعْضُهُمْ إِلَى بَعْضٍ قَالُوا أَتُحَدِّثُونَهُمْ بِمَا فَتَحَ اللهُ عَلَيْكُمْ لِيُحَاجُّوكُمْ بِهِ عِنْدَ رَبِّكُمْ أَفَلَا تَعْقِلُونَ
([77]) Do they not know that Allah knows all that they hide and all that they reveal? أَوَلَا يَعْلَمُونَ أَنَّ اللهَ يَعْلَمُ مَا يُسِرُّونَ وَمَا يُعْلِنُونَ
([78]) And among them are some illiterate ones. They don’t know the book except hearsay and they only guess. وَمِنْهُمْ أُمِّيُّونَ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ الْكِتَابَ إِلَّا أَمَانِيَّ وَإِنْ هُمْ إِلَّا يَظُنُّونَ
([79]) So woe to those who write a book with their hands and then say: This is from Allah, that they may purchase therewith a small gain. So woe to them for what their hands have written and woe to them for what they have earned. فَوَيْلٌ لِلَّذِينَ يَكْتُبُونَ الْكِتَابَ بِأَيْدِيهِمْ ثُمَّ يَقُولُونَ هَذَا مِنْ عِنْدِ اللهِ لِيَشْتَرُوا بِهِ ثَمَنًا قَلِيلًا فَوَيْلٌ لَهُمْ مِمَّا كَتَبَتْ أَيْدِيهِمْ وَوَيْلٌ لَهُمْ مِمَّا يَكْسِبُونَ
([80]) And they said: The fire will not touch us except for a certain number of days. Say: Did you take a promise from Allah? For Allah will never break his promise – or do you say things which you ascribe to Allah of which you have no knowledge? وَقَالُوا لَنْ تَمَسَّنَا النَّارُ إِلَّا أَيَّامًا مَعْدُودَةً قُلْ أَتَّخَذْتُمْ عِنْدَ اللهِ عَهْدًا فَلَنْ يُخْلِفَ اللهُ عَهْدَهُ أَمْ تَقُولُونَ عَلَى اللهِ مَا لَا تَعْلَمُونَ
([81]) No, on the contrary, whoever earned a bad deed until he is surrounded by his sins, these are bound to the fire and they are there forever. بَلَى مَنْ كَسَبَ سَيِّئَةً وَأَحَاطَتْ بِهِ خَطِيئَتُهُ فَأُولَئِكَ أَصْحَابُ النَّارِ هُمْ فِيهَا خَالِدُونَ
([82]) But as for those who believe and act righteously, they are the inhabitants of Paradise and they are there forever. وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ أُولَئِكَ أَصْحَابُ الْجَنَّةِ هُمْ فِيهَا خَالِدُونَ
([83]) And when we took a covenant from the Children of Isrâ’îl [that] you will not worship any except Allah, be good to your two parents, your relatives, orphans and the poor, speak kindly to people, maintain the prayer and give the Zakâh. Then you turned away, except a few of you, refusing. وَإِذْ أَخَذْنَا مِيثَاقَ بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ لَا تَعْبُدُونَ إِلَّا اللهَ وَبِالْوَالِدَيْنِ إِحْسَانًا وَذِي الْقُرْبَى وَالْيَتَامَى وَالْمَسَاكِينِ وَقُولُوا لِلنَّاسِ حُسْنًا وَأَقِيمُوا الصَّلَاةَ وَآتُوا الزَّكَاةَ ثُمَّ تَوَلَّيْتُمْ إِلَّا قَلِيلًا مِنْكُمْ وَأَنْتُمْ مُعْرِضُونَ
([84]) And when we took a covenant from you [that] you will not spill each other’s blood or expel each other from your homes. Then, you accepted [this covenant] and were yourselves witnesses. وَإِذْ أَخَذْنَا مِيثَاقَكُمْ لَا تَسْفِكُونَ دِمَاءَكُمْ وَلَا تُخْرِجُونَ أَنْفُسَكُمْ مِنْ دِيَارِكُمْ ثُمَّ أَقْرَرْتُمْ وَأَنْتُمْ تَشْهَدُونَ
([85]) Yet, you are the same ones killing each other and expelling a group among you from their homes. You conspire with others against them in sinfulness and aggression. And if they come to you as prisoners you ransom them, though their expulsion was forbidden to you. Do you then believe in some of the book but reject some? Then what is the recompense of those of you who do so but disgrace in the life of this world and on the day of resurrection they will be returned to the harshest punishment – and Allah is never unmindful of anything you do. ثُمَّ أَنْتُمْ هَؤُلَاءِ تَقْتُلُونَ أَنْفُسَكُمْ وَتُخْرِجُونَ فَرِيقًا مِنْكُمْ مِنْ دِيَارِهِمْ تَظَاهَرُونَ عَلَيْهِمْ بِالْإِثْمِ وَالْعُدْوَانِ وَإِنْ يَأْتُوكُمْ أُسَارَى تُفَادُوهُمْ وَهُوَ مُحَرَّمٌ عَلَيْكُمْ إِخْرَاجُهُمْ أَفَتُؤْمِنُونَ بِبَعْضِ الْكِتَابِ وَتَكْفُرُونَ بِبَعْضٍ فَمَا جَزَاءُ مَنْ يَفْعَلُ ذَلِكَ مِنْكُمْ إِلَّا خِزْيٌ فِي الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا وَيَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ يُرَدُّونَ إِلَى أَشَدِّ الْعَذَابِ وَمَا اللهُ بِغَافِلٍ عَمَّا تَعْمَلُونَ
([86]) Those are the ones who have sold off the hereafter for the life of this world so their punishment will not be lightened, nor will they be helped. أُولَئِكَ الَّذِينَ اشْتَرَوُا الْحَيَاةَ الدُّنْيَا بِالْآخِرَةِ فَلَا يُخَفَّفُ عَنْهُمُ الْعَذَابُ وَلَا هُمْ يُنْصَرُونَ
([87]) And we gave Mûsâ the book and followed him with a succession of messengers. And we gave `Îsâ the son of Maryam clear proofs and aided him with the spirit of purity (the angel Jibrîl). So must you, every time a messenger comes to you with other than what you desire, become arrogant – denying some and killing others? وَلَقَدْ آتَيْنَا مُوسَى الْكِتَابَ وَقَفَّيْنَا مِنْ بَعْدِهِ بِالرُّسُلِ وَآتَيْنَا عِيسَى ابْنَ مَرْيَمَ الْبَيِّنَاتِ وَأَيَّدْنَاهُ بِرُوحِ الْقُدُسِ أَفَكُلَّمَا جَاءَكُمْ رَسُولٌ بِمَا لَا تَهْوَى أَنْفُسُكُمُ اسْتَكْبَرْتُمْ فَفَرِيقًا كَذَّبْتُمْ وَفَرِيقًا تَقْتُلُونَ
([88]) And they said: Our minds are closed. Rather, Allah has cursed them for their rejection, so their faith is very little. وَقَالُوا قُلُوبُنَا غُلْفٌ بَلْ لَعَنَهُمُ اللهُ بِكُفْرِهِمْ فَقَلِيلًا مَا يُؤْمِنُونَ
([89]) And when a book came to them from Allah verifying what was in their possession, and before that they used to invoke victory over the pagans. But when that which they know came to them, they rejected it. So the curse of Allah is upon the rejecters. وَلَمَّا جَاءَهُمْ كِتَابٌ مِنْ عِنْدِ اللهِ مُصَدِّقٌ لِمَا مَعَهُمْ وَكَانُوا مِنْ قَبْلُ يَسْتَفْتِحُونَ عَلَى الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا فَلَمَّا جَاءَهُمْ مَا عَرَفُوا كَفَرُوا بِهِ فَلَعْنَةُ اللهِ عَلَى الْكَافِرِينَ
([90]) How evil is that for which they sold themselves that they should reject what Allah sent down out of hatred that Allah should send his favors upon whom he wishes among his slaves. So they returned with wrath upon wrath and for the rejecters is a humiliating punishment. بِئْسَمَا اشْتَرَوْا بِهِ أَنْفُسَهُمْ أَنْ يَكْفُرُوا بِمَا أَنْزَلَ اللهُ بَغْيًا أَنْ يُنَزِّلَ اللهُ مِنْ فَضْلِهِ عَلَى مَنْ يَشَاءُ مِنْ عِبَادِهِ فَبَاءُوا بِغَضَبٍ عَلَى غَضَبٍ وَلِلْكَافِرِينَ عَذَابٌ مُهِينٌ
([91]) And when it is said to them: Believe in what Allah has sent down. They say: We believe in what was sent to us. But they reject everything after it. And it is the truth and a verification of what is in their possession. Say: So why did you murder the prophets of Allah before, if you were believers? وَإِذَا قِيلَ لَهُمْ آمِنُوا بِمَا أَنْزَلَ اللهُ قَالُوا نُؤْمِنُ بِمَا أُنْزِلَ عَلَيْنَا وَيَكْفُرُونَ بِمَا وَرَاءَهُ وَهُوَ الْحَقُّ مُصَدِّقًا لِمَا مَعَهُمْ قُلْ فَلِمَ تَقْتُلُونَ أَنْبِيَاءَ اللهِ مِنْ قَبْلُ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ مُؤْمِنِينَ
([92]) And Mûsâ came to you with clear proofs, but you chose the calf when he was away and you were wrongdoers. وَلَقَدْ جَاءَكُمْ مُوسَى بِالْبَيِّنَاتِ ثُمَّ اتَّخَذْتُمُ الْعِجْلَ مِنْ بَعْدِهِ وَأَنْتُمْ ظَالِمُونَ
([93]) And when we took the covenant from you and lifted the mountain of Tûr over you [saying]: Take what we have given you firmly and listen. They said: We hear and we disobey. And their hearts were saturated with the worship of the calf because of their incessant rejection. Say: How evil is that with which your belief commands you if you are believers. وَإِذْ أَخَذْنَا مِيثَاقَكُمْ وَرَفَعْنَا فَوْقَكُمُ الطُّورَ خُذُوا مَا آتَيْنَاكُمْ بِقُوَّةٍ وَاسْمَعُوا قَالُوا سَمِعْنَا وَعَصَيْنَا وَأُشْرِبُوا فِي قُلُوبِهِمُ الْعِجْلَ بِكُفْرِهِمْ قُلْ بِئْسَمَا يَأْمُرُكُمْ بِهِ إِيمَانُكُمْ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ مُؤْمِنِينَ
([94]) Say: If the realm of the hereafter with Allah is reserved for you apart from all others then wish for death, if you are honest. قُلْ إِنْ كَانَتْ لَكُمُ الدَّارُ الْآخِرَةُ عِنْدَ اللهِ خَالِصَةً مِنْ دُونِ النَّاسِ فَتَمَنَّوُا الْمَوْتَ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ صَادِقِينَ
([95]) But they will never wish for it because of what their own hands have sent forth, and Allah knows about the wrongdoers. وَلَنْ يَتَمَنَّوْهُ أَبَدًا بِمَا قَدَّمَتْ أَيْدِيهِمْ وَاللهُ عَلِيمٌ بِالظَّالِمِينَ
([96]) You will find them to be the people most obsessed with life, even more so than the pagans. Each of them wishes if only he could be given one thousand years of life. But this would not keep him away from the punishment even if it was granted. And Allah is seer of all they do. وَلَتَجِدَنَّهُمْ أَحْرَصَ النَّاسِ عَلَى حَيَاةٍ وَمِنَ الَّذِينَ أَشْرَكُوا يَوَدُّ أَحَدُهُمْ لَوْ يُعَمَّرُ أَلْفَ سَنَةٍ وَمَا هُوَ بِمُزَحْزِحِهِ مِنَ الْعَذَابِ أَنْ يُعَمَّرَ وَاللهُ بَصِيرٌ بِمَا يَعْمَلُونَ
([97]) Say: Whoever is an enemy to Jibrîl, he (Jibrîl) is indeed the one who brought this down upon your heart with Allah’s permission, a verification of what was before it, and a guidance and good tidings for the believers. قُلْ مَنْ كَانَ عَدُوًّا لِجِبْرِيلَ فَإِنَّهُ نَزَّلَهُ عَلَى قَلْبِكَ بِإِذْنِ اللهِ مُصَدِّقًا لِمَا بَيْنَ يَدَيْهِ وَهُدًى وَبُشْرَى لِلْمُؤْمِنِينَ
([98]) Whoever is an enemy to Allah, his angels, his messengers, Jibrîl and Mîkâl – then Allah is surely an enemy to the rejecters. مَنْ كَانَ عَدُوًّا لِلَّهِ وَمَلَائِكَتِهِ وَرُسُلِهِ وَجِبْرِيلَ وَمِيكَالَ فَإِنَّ اللهَ عَدُوٌّ لِلْكَافِرِينَ
([99]) And we have sent down to you clear signs, and none reject them except the wicked. وَلَقَدْ أَنْزَلْنَا إِلَيْكَ آيَاتٍ بَيِّنَاتٍ وَمَا يَكْفُرُ بِهَا إِلَّا الْفَاسِقُونَ
([100] And so every time they undertake a covenant do some of them cast it aside? In fact, most of them do not believe. أَوَكُلَّمَا عَاهَدُوا عَهْدًا نَبَذَهُ فَرِيقٌ مِنْهُمْ بَلْ أَكْثَرُهُمْ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ
([101]) And when a messenger came to them from Allah verifying what was in their possession, some of those who were given the book cast the book of Allah behind their backs, as if they did not know. وَلَمَّا جَاءَهُمْ رَسُولٌ مِنْ عِنْدِ اللهِ مُصَدِّقٌ لِمَا مَعَهُمْ نَبَذَ فَرِيقٌ مِنَ الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْكِتَابَ كِتَابَ اللهِ وَرَاءَ ظُهُورِهِمْ كَأَنَّهُمْ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ
([102]) And they followed that which the devils recited during the time of Sulaymân. And Sulaymân did not reject faith; rather, it was the devils who rejected faith, teaching the people sorcery and that which was sent down to the two angels at Bâbil; Hârût and Mârût. But those two never taught anyone until they had told them: We are nothing but a trial, so do not reject belief. So they learned from those two that with which they cause splits between a person and their spouse, but they can never cause any harm to anyone except by Allah’s leave. And so they learn that which harms them and does not benefit them, though they know that whoever makes this transaction will have no share in the hereafter. How evil is that for which they have sold themselves, if they only knew. وَاتَّبَعُوا مَا تَتْلُو الشَّيَاطِينُ عَلَى مُلْكِ سُلَيْمَانَ وَمَا كَفَرَ سُلَيْمَانُ وَلَكِنَّ الشَّيَاطِينَ كَفَرُوا يُعَلِّمُونَ النَّاسَ السِّحْرَ وَمَا أُنْزِلَ عَلَى الْمَلَكَيْنِ بِبَابِلَ هَارُوتَ وَمَارُوتَ وَمَا يُعَلِّمَانِ مِنْ أَحَدٍ حَتَّى يَقُولَا إِنَّمَا نَحْنُ فِتْنَةٌ فَلَا تَكْفُرْ فَيَتَعَلَّمُونَ مِنْهُمَا مَا يُفَرِّقُونَ بِهِ بَيْنَ الْمَرْءِ وَزَوْجِهِ وَمَا هُمْ بِضَارِّينَ بِهِ مِنْ أَحَدٍ إِلَّا بِإِذْنِ اللهِ وَيَتَعَلَّمُونَ مَا يَضُرُّهُمْ وَلَا يَنْفَعُهُمْ وَلَقَدْ عَلِمُوا لَمَنِ اشْتَرَاهُ مَا لَهُ فِي الْآخِرَةِ مِنْ خَلَاقٍ وَلَبِئْسَ مَا شَرَوْا بِهِ أَنْفُسَهُمْ لَوْ كَانُوا يَعْلَمُونَ
([103]) If only they had believed and been vigilant, reward from Allah is surely better if they only knew. وَلَوْ أَنَّهُمْ آمَنُوا وَاتَّقَوْا لَمَثُوبَةٌ مِنْ عِنْدِ اللهِ خَيْرٌ لَوْ كَانُوا يَعْلَمُونَ
([104]) O you who believe, do not say: Râ`inâ, but rather say: Unzurnâ. And listen. And for the rejecters is a painful punishment. يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تَقُولُوا رَاعِنَا وَقُولُوا انْظُرْنَا وَاسْمَعُوا وَلِلْكَافِرِينَ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ
([105]) The rejecters from the People of the Book and the pagans do not wish for any good to come down to you from your lord. But Allah favors with his mercy whoever he wishes. And Allah’s generosity is great. مَا يَوَدُّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا مِنْ أَهْلِ الْكِتَابِ وَلَا الْمُشْرِكِينَ أَنْ يُنَزَّلَ عَلَيْكُمْ مِنْ خَيْرٍ مِنْ رَبِّكُمْ وَاللهُ يَخْتَصُّ بِرَحْمَتِهِ مَنْ يَشَاءُ وَاللهُ ذُو الْفَضْلِ الْعَظِيمِ
([106]) We never abrogate any verse or cause it to be forgotten except that we bring one better than it or similar to it. Did you not know that Allah has absolute power over all things? مَا نَنْسَخْ مِنْ آيَةٍ أَوْ نُنْسِهَا نَأْتِ بِخَيْرٍ مِنْهَا أَوْ مِثْلِهَا أَلَمْ تَعْلَمْ أَنَّ اللهَ عَلَى كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ
([107]) Did you not know that to Allah belongs the complete sovereignty in the heavens and the earth and that you have no ally nor helper against him? أَلَمْ تَعْلَمْ أَنَّ اللهَ لَهُ مُلْكُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَمَا لَكُمْ مِنْ دُونِ اللهِ مِنْ وَلِيٍّ وَلَا نَصِيرٍ
([108]) Or, do you wish to question your messenger as Mûsâ was questioned before? And whoever replaces faith with rejection has strayed from the path of balance. أَمْ تُرِيدُونَ أَنْ تَسْأَلُوا رَسُولَكُمْ كَمَا سُئِلَ مُوسَى مِنْ قَبْلُ وَمَنْ يَتَبَدَّلِ الْكُفْرَ بِالْإِيمَانِ فَقَدْ ضَلَّ سَوَاءَ السَّبِيلِ
([109]) Many of the People of the Book wish if only they could turn you back to disbelief after your belief. This is out of envy from within themselves even after the truth has become clear to them. So pardon and forbear until Allah brings his resolution. Allah is surely in control of everything. وَدَّ كَثِيرٌ مِنْ أَهْلِ الْكِتَابِ لَوْ يَرُدُّونَكُمْ مِنْ بَعْدِ إِيمَانِكُمْ كُفَّارًا حَسَدًا مِنْ عِنْدِ أَنْفُسِهِمْ مِنْ بَعْدِ مَا تَبَيَّنَ لَهُمُ الْحَقُّ فَاعْفُوا وَاصْفَحُوا حَتَّى يَأْتِيَ اللهُ بِأَمْرِهِ إِنَّ اللهَ عَلَى كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ
([110]) And maintain the prayer and pay the Zakâh, and whatever good you send forth for yourselves you will find it with Allah. Allah surely sees all that you do. وَأَقِيمُوا الصَّلَاةَ وَآتُوا الزَّكَاةَ وَمَا تُقَدِّمُوا لِأَنْفُسِكُمْ مِنْ خَيْرٍ تَجِدُوهُ عِنْدَ اللهِ إِنَّ اللهَ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ بَصِيرٌ
([111]) They said: No one will enter Paradise unless they are a Jew or a Christian. These are their hopes. Say: Bring your proof, if you are correct. وَقَالُوا لَنْ يَدْخُلَ الْجَنَّةَ إِلَّا مَنْ كَانَ هُودًا أَوْ نَصَارَى تِلْكَ أَمَانِيُّهُمْ قُلْ هَاتُوا بُرْهَانَكُمْ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ صَادِقِينَ
([112]) On the contrary! Whoever submits their face to Allah, while doing good deeds will have their reward with their lord and will experience no fear nor shall they grieve. بَلَى مَنْ أَسْلَمَ وَجْهَهُ لِلَّهِ وَهُوَ مُحْسِنٌ فَلَهُ أَجْرُهُ عِنْدَ رَبِّهِ وَلَا خَوْفٌ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلَا هُمْ يَحْزَنُونَ
([113]) The Jews said: The Christians have nothing to stand on. And the Christians said: The Jews have nothing to stand on. And they recite the book. Something similar was said by those who do not know, like their statements. Allah will judge between them on the day of resurrection regarding that about which they used to differ. وَقَالَتِ الْيَهُودُ لَيْسَتِ النَّصَارَى عَلَى شَيْءٍ وَقَالَتِ النَّصَارَى لَيْسَتِ الْيَهُودُ عَلَى شَيْءٍ وَهُمْ يَتْلُونَ الْكِتَابَ كَذَلِكَ قَالَ الَّذِينَ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ مِثْلَ قَوْلِهِمْ فَاللهُ يَحْكُمُ بَيْنَهُمْ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ فِيمَا كَانُوا فِيهِ يَخْتَلِفُونَ
([114]) And who is greater in transgression than those who blocked Allah’s places of worship that his name be remembered therein and strove for their destruction? They should never enter them except in fear. For them is humiliation in the life of this world and in the hereafter a huge punishment. وَمَنْ أَظْلَمُ مِمَّنْ مَنَعَ مَسَاجِدَ اللهِ أَنْ يُذْكَرَ فِيهَا اسْمُهُ وَسَعَى فِي خَرَابِهَا أُولَئِكَ مَا كَانَ لَهُمْ أَنْ يَدْخُلُوهَا إِلَّا خَائِفِينَ لَهُمْ فِي الدُّنْيَا خِزْيٌ وَلَهُمْ فِي الْآخِرَةِ عَذَابٌ عَظِيمٌ
([115]) And to Allah belongs the east and the west. So whichever way you turn, there is the face of Allah. Allah is surely vast, knowing. وَلِلَّهِ الْمَشْرِقُ وَالْمَغْرِبُ فَأَيْنَمَا تُوَلُّوا فَثَمَّ وَجْهُ اللهِ إِنَّ اللهَ وَاسِعٌ عَلِيمٌ
([116]) They said: Allah has taken a son. Exalted is he! Rather, to him belongs all that is in the heavens and the earth – all are subservient to him. وَقَالُوا اتَّخَذَ اللهُ وَلَدًا سُبْحَانَهُ بَلْ لَهُ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ كُلٌّ لَهُ قَانِتُونَ
([117]) The originator of the heavens and the earth. Whenever he decrees anything, he merely says to it: Be, and it is. بَدِيعُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَإِذَا قَضَى أَمْرًا فَإِنَّمَا يَقُولُ لَهُ كُنْ فَيَكُونُ
([118]) And those who do not know said: Why doesn’t Allah speak to us or send us a sign? Likewise, those before them said something similar to their statement. Their hearts resemble each other. We have made our signs clear to a people who are certain. وَقَالَ الَّذِينَ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ لَوْلَا يُكَلِّمُنَا اللهُ أَوْ تَأْتِينَا آيَةٌ كَذَلِكَ قَالَ الَّذِينَ مِنْ قَبْلِهِمْ مِثْلَ قَوْلِهِمْ تَشَابَهَتْ قُلُوبُهُمْ قَدْ بَيَّنَّا الْآيَاتِ لِقَوْمٍ يُوقِنُونَ
([119]) It is we who sent you with the truth, a bearer of good tidings and a warner. And you will not be asked about those bound to the fire. إِنَّا أَرْسَلْنَاكَ بِالْحَقِّ بَشِيرًا وَنَذِيرًا وَلَا تُسْأَلُ عَنْ أَصْحَابِ الْجَحِيمِ
([120]) Neither the Jews nor the Christians will ever accept you until you follow their traditions. Say: Allah’s guidance is the [true] guidance. And if you follow their inclinations after the knowledge which has come to you, you will have neither an ally nor any helper against Allah. وَلَنْ تَرْضَى عَنْكَ الْيَهُودُ وَلَا النَّصَارَى حَتَّى تَتَّبِعَ مِلَّتَهُمْ قُلْ إِنَّ هُدَى اللهِ هُوَ الْهُدَى وَلَئِنِ اتَّبَعْتَ أَهْوَاءَهُمْ بَعْدَ الَّذِي جَاءَكَ مِنَ الْعِلْمِ مَا لَكَ مِنَ اللهِ مِنْ وَلِيٍّ وَلَا نَصِيرٍ
([121]) Those to whom we gave the book and who recite it and follow it as it should be. They believe in it. But whoever rejects it are the ones who lose. الَّذِينَ آتَيْنَاهُمُ الْكِتَابَ يَتْلُونَهُ حَقَّ تِلَاوَتِهِ أُولَئِكَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِهِ وَمَنْ يَكْفُرْ بِهِ فَأُولَئِكَ هُمُ الْخَاسِرُونَ
([122]) O Children of Isrâ’îl, remember the good I bestowed on you and that I favored you over the nations. يَا بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ اذْكُرُوا نِعْمَتِيَ الَّتِي أَنْعَمْتُ عَلَيْكُمْ وَأَنِّي فَضَّلْتُكُمْ عَلَى الْعَالَمِينَ
([123]) And guard yourselves against a day when no soul can avail another at all, nor will compensation be accepted from them, nor will any intercession benefit them and they will not be helped. وَاتَّقُوا يَوْمًا لَا تَجْزِي نَفْسٌ عَنْ نَفْسٍ شَيْئًا وَلَا يُقْبَلُ مِنْهَا عَدْلٌ وَلَا تَنْفَعُهَا شَفَاعَةٌ وَلَا هُمْ يُنْصَرُونَ
([124]) And when Ibrâhîm was tested by his lord with some words and he fulfilled them. He said: I will make you a leader for the people. He said: And among my descendants? He said: My covenant does not extend to the wrongdoers. وَإِذِ ابْتَلَى إِبْرَاهِيمَ رَبُّهُ بِكَلِمَاتٍ فَأَتَمَّهُنَّ قَالَ إِنِّي جَاعِلُكَ لِلنَّاسِ إِمَامًا قَالَ وَمِنْ ذُرِّيَّتِي قَالَ لَا يَنَالُ عَهْدِي الظَّالِمِينَ
([125]) And when we made the house a recurrent destination for the people and a place of security. And take the place where Ibrâhîm stood as a place of prayer. And we entrusted Ibrâhîm and Ismâ`îl to cleanse my house for those circling it or staying there for worship and for those bowing and prostrating. وَإِذْ جَعَلْنَا الْبَيْتَ مَثَابَةً لِلنَّاسِ وَأَمْنًا وَاتَّخِذُوا مِنْ مَقَامِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ مُصَلًّى وَعَهِدْنَا إِلَى إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَإِسْمَاعِيلَ أَنْ طَهِّرَا بَيْتِيَ لِلطَّائِفِينَ وَالْعَاكِفِينَ وَالرُّكَّعِ السُّجُودِ
([126]) And when Ibrâhîm said: My lord, make this town secure and bless its inhabitants with sustenance and fruit – those who believe among them in Allah and the last day. He said: And as for those who reject, I will surely provide for them for a little while and then force them to the punishment of the fire – the worst end. وَإِذْ قَالَ إِبْرَاهِيمُ رَبِّ اجْعَلْ هَذَا بَلَدًا آمِنًا وَارْزُقْ أَهْلَهُ مِنَ الثَّمَرَاتِ مَنْ آمَنَ مِنْهُمْ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ قَالَ وَمَنْ كَفَرَ فَأُمَتِّعُهُ قَلِيلًا ثُمَّ أَضْطَرُّهُ إِلَى عَذَابِ النَّارِ وَبِئْسَ الْمَصِيرُ
([127]) And when Ibrâhîm laid the foundation for the house along with Ismâ`îl [saying]: Our lord, accept from us, you are surely the hearer, the knower. وَإِذْ يَرْفَعُ إِبْرَاهِيمُ الْقَوَاعِدَ مِنَ الْبَيْتِ وَإِسْمَاعِيلُ رَبَّنَا تَقَبَّلْ مِنَّا إِنَّكَ أَنْتَ السَّمِيعُ الْعَلِيمُ
([128]) Our lord, and make the two of us fully in submission to you and from our descendants a nation in submission to you, and show us our rituals and accept our repentance you are surely the ever-accepting of repentance, the very merciful. رَبَّنَا وَاجْعَلْنَا مُسْلِمَيْنِ لَكَ وَمِنْ ذُرِّيَّتِنَا أُمَّةً مُسْلِمَةً لَكَ وَأَرِنَا مَنَاسِكَنَا وَتُبْ عَلَيْنَا إِنَّكَ أَنْتَ التَّوَّابُ الرَّحِيمُ
([129]) Our lord, and send to them a messenger from among them who recites to them your signs and who teaches them the book and the wisdom and who purifies them. You are surely the mighty, the wise. رَبَّنَا وَابْعَثْ فِيهِمْ رَسُولًا مِنْهُمْ يَتْلُو عَلَيْهِمْ آيَاتِكَ وَيُعَلِّمُهُمُ الْكِتَابَ وَالْحِكْمَةَ وَيُزَكِّيهِمْ إِنَّكَ أَنْتَ الْعَزِيزُ الْحَكِيمُ
([130]) And who could dislike the tradition of Ibrâhîm, but one who has become foolish? And we have chosen him in this world and surely he is among the righteous in the hereafter. وَمَنْ يَرْغَبُ عَنْ مِلَّةِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ إِلَّا مَنْ سَفِهَ نَفْسَهُ وَلَقَدِ اصْطَفَيْنَاهُ فِي الدُّنْيَا وَإِنَّهُ فِي الْآخِرَةِ لَمِنَ الصَّالِحِينَ
([131]) When his lord said to him: Submit. He said: I have submitted to the lord of the worlds. إِذْ قَالَ لَهُ رَبُّهُ أَسْلِمْ قَالَ أَسْلَمْتُ لِرَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ
([132]) And this was enjoined by Ibrâhîm upon his sons and by Ya`qûb: O my sons, Allah has chosen for you the way, so die not except in a state of submission. وَوَصَّى بِهَا إِبْرَاهِيمُ بَنِيهِ وَيَعْقُوبُ يَا بَنِيَّ إِنَّ اللهَ اصْطَفَى لَكُمُ الدِّينَ فَلَا تَمُوتُنَّ إِلَّا وَأَنْتُمْ مُسْلِمُونَ
([133]) Or were you present when death approached Ya`qûb, when he asked his sons: What will you worship after me? They said: We worship your deity and the deity of your fathers, Ibrâhîm, Ismâ`îl and Ishâq – one deity, and we are in submission to him. أَمْ كُنْتُمْ شُهَدَاءَ إِذْ حَضَرَ يَعْقُوبَ الْمَوْتُ إِذْ قَالَ لِبَنِيهِ مَا تَعْبُدُونَ مِنْ بَعْدِي قَالُوا نَعْبُدُ إِلَهَكَ وَإِلَهَ آبَائِكَ إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَإِسْمَاعِيلَ وَإِسْحَاقَ إِلَهًا وَاحِدًا وَنَحْنُ لَهُ مُسْلِمُونَ
([134]) That is a nation which went before. For them is what they earned and for you is what you earned and you will not be asked about what they did. تِلْكَ أُمَّةٌ قَدْ خَلَتْ لَهَا مَا كَسَبَتْ وَلَكُمْ مَا كَسَبْتُمْ وَلَا تُسْأَلُونَ عَمَّا كَانُوا يَعْمَلُونَ
([135]) But they said: Be Jews or Christians and you will be guided. Say: Rather, the tradition of Ibrahim, [who was] unwavering upon the truth, and he was not among the polytheists. وَقَالُوا كُونُوا هُودًا أَوْ نَصَارَى تَهْتَدُوا قُلْ بَلْ مِلَّةَ إِبْرَاهِيمَ حَنِيفًا وَمَا كَانَ مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ
([136]) Say (pl): We believe in Allah, in what was sent down to us, in what was sent down to Ibrâhîm, Ismâ`îl, Ishâq, Ya`qûb and the tribes, in what Mûsâ and `Îsâ were given and in what all of the prophets were given from their lord. We do not differentiate between any of them and we are in submission to him. قُولُوا آمَنَّا بِاللَّهِ وَمَا أُنْزِلَ إِلَيْنَا وَمَا أُنْزِلَ إِلَى إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَإِسْمَاعِيلَ وَإِسْحَاقَ وَيَعْقُوبَ وَالْأَسْبَاطِ وَمَا أُوتِيَ مُوسَى وَعِيسَى وَمَا أُوتِيَ النَّبِيُّونَ مِنْ رَبِّهِمْ لَا نُفَرِّقُ بَيْنَ أَحَدٍ مِنْهُمْ وَنَحْنُ لَهُ مُسْلِمُونَ
([137]) So, if they believe in what is similar to what you believe in, they are upon guidance. But if they turn away, it is nothing but rebellion. So Allah will suffice you against them. Allah is the hearing and the knowing. فَإِنْ آمَنُوا بِمِثْلِ مَا آمَنْتُمْ بِهِ فَقَدِ اهْتَدَوْا وَإِنْ تَوَلَّوْا فَإِنَّمَا هُمْ فِي شِقَاقٍ فَسَيَكْفِيكَهُمُ اللهُ وَهُوَ السَّمِيعُ الْعَلِيمُ
([138]) [This is] Allah’s induction, and whose baptism is better than Allah’s? And we are worshippers of him. صِبْغَةَ اللهِ وَمَنْ أَحْسَنُ مِنَ اللهِ صِبْغَةً وَنَحْنُ لَهُ عَابِدُونَ
([139]) Say: Do you dispute with us about Allah while he is our lord and your lord? Our deeds are ours and your deeds are yours and we are sincere in dedication to him. قُلْ أَتُحَاجُّونَنَا فِي اللهِ وَهُوَ رَبُّنَا وَرَبُّكُمْ وَلَنَا أَعْمَالُنَا وَلَكُمْ أَعْمَالُكُمْ وَنَحْنُ لَهُ مُخْلِصُونَ
([140]) Or do you claim that Ibrâhîm, Ismâ`îl, Ishâq, Ya`qûb and the tribes were Jews or Christians? Say: Are you the more knowledgeable or Allah? And who is greater in transgression than one who conceals evidence he has from Allah? And Allah is not unmindful of what you do. أَمْ تَقُولُونَ إِنَّ إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَإِسْمَاعِيلَ وَإِسْحَاقَ وَيَعْقُوبَ وَالْأَسْبَاطَ كَانُوا هُودًا أَوْ نَصَارَى قُلْ أَأَنْتُمْ أَعْلَمُ أَمِ اللهُ وَمَنْ أَظْلَمُ مِمَّنْ كَتَمَ شَهَادَةً عِنْدَهُ مِنَ اللهِ وَمَا اللهُ بِغَافِلٍ عَمَّا تَعْمَلُونَ
([141]) That is a nation which went before. What they earned is theirs and what you earned is yours. You will not be asked about what they used to do. تِلْكَ أُمَّةٌ قَدْ خَلَتْ لَهَا مَا كَسَبَتْ وَلَكُمْ مَا كَسَبْتُمْ وَلَا تُسْأَلُونَ عَمَّا كَانُوا يَعْمَلُونَ
([142]) The fools among the people will say: What turned them from their prayer-direction which they used to face? Say: To Allah belong the east and the west. He guides whoever he wishes to the straight way. سَيَقُولُ السُّفَهَاءُ مِنَ النَّاسِ مَا وَلَّاهُمْ عَنْ قِبْلَتِهِمُ الَّتِي كَانُوا عَلَيْهَا قُلْ لِلَّهِ الْمَشْرِقُ وَالْمَغْرِبُ يَهْدِي مَنْ يَشَاءُ إِلَى صِرَاطٍ مُسْتَقِيمٍ
([143]) Thus, we made you an exemplary nation so that you may be witnesses over the people and the Prophet may be a witness over you. And we only made the prayer-direction which you used to face to distinguish those who follow the Prophet from those who turn on their heels. And it was surely burdensome except upon those whom Allah guided. And Allah would never allow your [acts of] faith to be lost. And Allah is with people compassionate, merciful. وَكَذَلِكَ جَعَلْنَاكُمْ أُمَّةً وَسَطًا لِتَكُونُوا شُهَدَاءَ عَلَى النَّاسِ وَيَكُونَ الرَّسُولُ عَلَيْكُمْ شَهِيدًا وَمَا جَعَلْنَا الْقِبْلَةَ الَّتِي كُنْتَ عَلَيْهَا إِلَّا لِنَعْلَمَ مَنْ يَتَّبِعُ الرَّسُولَ مِمَّنْ يَنْقَلِبُ عَلَى عَقِبَيْهِ وَإِنْ كَانَتْ لَكَبِيرَةً إِلَّا عَلَى الَّذِينَ هَدَى اللهُ وَمَا كَانَ اللهُ لِيُضِيعَ إِيمَانَكُمْ إِنَّ اللهَ بِالنَّاسِ لَرَءُوفٌ رَحِيمٌ
([144]) We have seen the turning of your face toward the heavens. And we will surely turn you toward a prayer-direction which pleases you. So, turn your face in the direction of the sacred mosque, and wherever you may be, turn your faces toward it. Those who were given the book surely know that it is the truth from their lord and Allah is not unmindful of what they do. قَدْ نَرَى تَقَلُّبَ وَجْهِكَ فِي السَّمَاءِ فَلَنُوَلِّيَنَّكَ قِبْلَةً تَرْضَاهَا فَوَلِّ وَجْهَكَ شَطْرَ الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ وَحَيْثُ مَا كُنْتُمْ فَوَلُّوا وُجُوهَكُمْ شَطْرَهُ وَإِنَّ الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْكِتَابَ لَيَعْلَمُونَ أَنَّهُ الْحَقُّ مِنْ رَبِّهِمْ وَمَا اللهُ بِغَافِلٍ عَمَّا يَعْمَلُونَ
([145]) Even if you were to bring those who were given the book every possible sign, they would not follow your prayer-direction. Nor will you follow their prayer-direction. Nor will some of them follow the prayer-direction of others. And if you were to follow their inclinations, even after the knowledge which has come to you, you would surely be among the wrongdoers. وَلَئِنْ أَتَيْتَ الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْكِتَابَ بِكُلِّ آيَةٍ مَا تَبِعُوا قِبْلَتَكَ وَمَا أَنْتَ بِتَابِعٍ قِبْلَتَهُمْ وَمَا بَعْضُهُمْ بِتَابِعٍ قِبْلَةَ بَعْضٍ وَلَئِنِ اتَّبَعْتَ أَهْوَاءَهُمْ مِنْ بَعْدِ مَا جَاءَكَ مِنَ الْعِلْمِ إِنَّكَ إِذًا لَمِنَ الظَّالِمِينَ
([146]) Those to whom we gave the book know him like they know their own sons. And there is surely a group among them who conceal the truth knowingly. الَّذِينَ آتَيْنَاهُمُ الْكِتَابَ يَعْرِفُونَهُ كَمَا يَعْرِفُونَ أَبْنَاءَهُمْ وَإِنَّ فَرِيقًا مِنْهُمْ لَيَكْتُمُونَ الْحَقَّ وَهُمْ يَعْلَمُونَ
([147]) The truth is from your lord, so do not be among the doubters. الْحَقُّ مِنْ رَبِّكَ فَلَا تَكُونَنَّ مِنَ الْمُمْتَرِينَ
([148]) And for each is a direction toward which they face. So, race for all that is good. Wherever you are, Allah will bring all of you together. Allah is surely in complete control of everything. وَلِكُلٍّ وِجْهَةٌ هُوَ مُوَلِّيهَا فَاسْتَبِقُوا الْخَيْرَاتِ أَيْنَ مَا تَكُونُوا يَأْتِ بِكُمُ اللهُ جَمِيعًا إِنَّ اللهَ عَلَى كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِير
([149]) And from wherever you come forth, turn your face toward the sacred mosque. And it is indeed the truth from your lord and Allah is not unmindful of what you do. وَمِنْ حَيْثُ خَرَجْتَ فَوَلِّ وَجْهَكَ شَطْرَ الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ وَإِنَّهُ لَلْحَقُّ مِنْ رَبِّكَ وَمَا اللهُ بِغَافِلٍ عَمَّا تَعْمَلُونَ
([150]) And from wherever you come forth, turn your face in the direction of the sacred mosque. And wherever you are, turn your faces toward it so that the people will have no argument against you except the transgressors among them. But do not fear them and rather fear me. And that I may complete my favors upon you and so that you may be guided. وَمِنْ حَيْثُ خَرَجْتَ فَوَلِّ وَجْهَكَ شَطْرَ الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ وَحَيْثُ مَا كُنْتُمْ فَوَلُّوا وُجُوهَكُمْ شَطْرَهُ لِئَلَّا يَكُونَ لِلنَّاسِ عَلَيْكُمْ حُجَّةٌ إِلَّا الَّذِينَ ظَلَمُوا مِنْهُمْ فَلَا تَخْشَوْهُمْ وَاخْشَوْنِي وَلِأُتِمَّ نِعْمَتِي عَلَيْكُمْ وَلَعَلَّكُمْ تَهْتَدُونَ
([151]) And as we sent to you a messenger from among you who recites to you our signs, purifies you, teaches you the book and the wisdom and teaches you what you did not know. كَمَا أَرْسَلْنَا فِيكُمْ رَسُولًا مِنْكُمْ يَتْلُو عَلَيْكُمْ آيَاتِنَا وَيُزَكِّيكُمْ وَيُعَلِّمُكُمُ الْكِتَابَ وَالْحِكْمَةَ وَيُعَلِّمُكُمْ مَا لَمْ تَكُونُوا تَعْلَمُونَ
([152]) So remember me that I remember you and express gratitude to me and do not reject me. فَاذْكُرُونِي أَذْكُرْكُمْ وَاشْكُرُوا لِي وَلَا تَكْفُرُونِ
([153]) O you who believe, seek help through patience and prayer. Allah is surely with the patient. يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا اسْتَعِينُوا بِالصَّبْرِ وَالصَّلَاةِ إِنَّ اللهَ مَعَ الصَّابِرِينَ
([154]) And do not say about those killed in Allah’s way that they are dead. Rather, they are alive, but you are not aware. وَلَا تَقُولُوا لِمَنْ يُقْتَلُ فِي سَبِيلِ اللهِ أَمْوَاتٌ بَلْ أَحْيَاءٌ وَلَكِنْ لَا تَشْعُرُونَ
([155]) And we will surely test you with some fear, hunger and shortage of wealth, numbers and produce – so give glad tidings to the patient. وَلَنَبْلُوَنَّكُمْ بِشَيْءٍ مِنَ الْخَوْفِ وَالْجُوعِ وَنَقْصٍ مِنَ الْأَمْوَالِ وَالْأَنْفُسِ وَالثَّمَرَاتِ وَبَشِّرِ الصَّابِرِينَ
([156]) Those who, when any calamity befalls them, say: Surely we belong to Allah and to Allah are returning. الَّذِينَ إِذَا أَصَابَتْهُمْ مُصِيبَةٌ قَالُوا إِنَّا لِلَّهِ وَإِنَّا إِلَيْهِ رَاجِعُونَ
([157]) Upon these are commendations from their lord and mercy. And these are the guided. أُولَئِكَ عَلَيْهِمْ صَلَوَاتٌ مِنْ رَبِّهِمْ وَرَحْمَةٌ وَأُولَئِكَ هُمُ الْمُهْتَدُونَ
([158]) As-Safâ and Al-Marwah are surely among Allah’s landmarks. So, whoever performs the major pilgrimage to the House or the minor one, has no sin to circle between them. And to whoever volunteers [acts of] good, Allah is grateful, knowing. إِنَّ الصَّفَا وَالْمَرْوَةَ مِنْ شَعَائِرِ اللهِ فَمَنْ حَجَّ الْبَيْتَ أَوِ اعْتَمَرَ فَلَا جُنَاحَ عَلَيْهِ أَنْ يَطَّوَّفَ بِهِمَا وَمَنْ تَطَوَّعَ خَيْرًا فَإِنَّ اللهَ شَاكِرٌ عَلِيمٌ
([159]) Surely, those who conceal the proofs and guidance which we sent down to them after we have clarified it for the people in the book, those are cursed by Allah and are cursed by those who curse. إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يَكْتُمُونَ مَا أَنْزَلْنَا مِنَ الْبَيِّنَاتِ وَالْهُدَى مِنْ بَعْدِ مَا بَيَّنَّاهُ لِلنَّاسِ فِي الْكِتَابِ أُولَئِكَ يَلْعَنُهُمُ اللهُ وَيَلْعَنُهُمُ اللَّاعِنُونَ
([160]) Except for those who repented, reformed and made things clear. I will accept their repentance and I am ever-accepting of repentance, merciful. إِلَّا الَّذِينَ تَابُوا وَأَصْلَحُوا وَبَيَّنُوا فَأُولَئِكَ أَتُوبُ عَلَيْهِمْ وَأَنَا التَّوَّابُ الرَّحِيمُ
([161]) Surely, those who reject and die as rejecters upon them is the curse of Allah, the angels and all the people. إِنَّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا وَمَاتُوا وَهُمْ كُفَّارٌ أُولَئِكَ عَلَيْهِمْ لَعْنَةُ اللهِ وَالْمَلَائِكَةِ وَالنَّاسِ أَجْمَعِينَ
([162]) In it forever, their punishment will not be lightened, nor will they be pardoned. خَالِدِينَ فِيهَا لَا يُخَفَّفُ عَنْهُمُ الْعَذَابُ وَلَا هُمْ يُنْظَرُونَ
([163]) And your deity is a single deity – there is no deity but him – the most beneficent, the very merciful. وَإِلَهُكُمْ إِلَهٌ وَاحِدٌ لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا هُوَ الرَّحْمَنُ الرَّحِيمُ
([164]) Surely in the creation of the heavens and the earth, the difference between night and day, the ship which sails over the sea with that which benefits people, the water which Allah sends down from the sky with which he brings the earth to life after its death and spreads in it every creature and the direction of the winds and the driven clouds between the sky and the earth, [in all of this] are signs for those who reason. إِنَّ فِي خَلْقِ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَاخْتِلَافِ اللَّيْلِ وَالنَّهَارِ وَالْفُلْكِ الَّتِي تَجْرِي فِي الْبَحْرِ بِمَا يَنْفَعُ النَّاسَ وَمَا أَنْزَلَ اللهُ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ مِنْ مَاءٍ فَأَحْيَا بِهِ الْأَرْضَ بَعْدَ مَوْتِهَا وَبَثَّ فِيهَا مِنْ كُلِّ دَابَّةٍ وَتَصْرِيفِ الرِّيَاحِ وَالسَّحَابِ الْمُسَخَّرِ بَيْنَ السَّمَاءِ وَالْأَرْضِ لَآيَاتٍ لِقَوْمٍ يَعْقِلُونَ
([165]) Some people take other than Allah to be equal to Allah. They love them as only Allah should be loved. But those who believe are strongest in love for Allah. And if only the wrongdoers could see [themselves] when they will see the punishment [and realize] that all power belongs to Allah and that Allah is harsh in punishment. وَمِنَ النَّاسِ مَنْ يَتَّخِذُ مِنْ دُونِ اللهِ أَنْدَادًا يُحِبُّونَهُمْ كَحُبِّ اللهِ وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا أَشَدُّ حُبًّا لِلَّهِ وَلَوْ يَرَى الَّذِينَ ظَلَمُوا إِذْ يَرَوْنَ الْعَذَابَ أَنَّ الْقُوَّةَ لِلَّهِ جَمِيعًا وَأَنَّ اللهَ شَدِيدُ الْعَذَابِ
([166]) When those who were followed disavow those who followed and they see the punishment and all ties between them are cut. إِذْ تَبَرَّأَ الَّذِينَ اتُّبِعُوا مِنَ الَّذِينَ اتَّبَعُوا وَرَأَوُا الْعَذَابَ وَتَقَطَّعَتْ بِهِمُ الْأَسْبَابُ
([167]) And those who followed say: If only we had another chance so we could disavow them as they have disavowed us. Thus, Allah shows them their deeds as bitter regrets for them and they will never leave the fire. وَقَالَ الَّذِينَ اتَّبَعُوا لَوْ أَنَّ لَنَا كَرَّةً فَنَتَبَرَّأَ مِنْهُمْ كَمَا تَبَرَّءُوا مِنَّا كَذَلِكَ يُرِيهِمُ اللهُ أَعْمَالَهُمْ حَسَرَاتٍ عَلَيْهِمْ وَمَا هُمْ بِخَارِجِينَ مِنَ النَّارِ
([168]) O people, eat from all that is lawful and good in the earth and do not follow the footsteps of Shaytân (Satan). He is surely a clear enemy to you. يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ كُلُوا مِمَّا فِي الْأَرْضِ حَلَالًا طَيِّبًا وَلَا تَتَّبِعُوا خُطُوَاتِ الشَّيْطَانِ إِنَّهُ لَكُمْ عَدُوٌّ مُبِينٌ
([169]) He only commands you evil and obscenity and that you should attribute to Allah that which you do not know. إِنَّمَا يَأْمُرُكُمْ بِالسُّوءِ وَالْفَحْشَاءِ وَأَنْ تَقُولُوا عَلَى اللهِ مَا لَا تَعْلَمُونَ
([170]) And when it is said to them: Follow what Allah sent down. They say: Rather, we follow that upon which we found our forefathers. So, even if their forefathers did not understand anything and were not guided? وَإِذَا قِيلَ لَهُمُ اتَّبِعُوا مَا أَنْزَلَ اللهُ قَالُوا بَلْ نَتَّبِعُ مَا أَلْفَيْنَا عَلَيْهِ آبَاءَنَا أَوَلَوْ كَانَ آبَاؤُهُمْ لَا يَعْقِلُونَ شَيْئًا وَلَا يَهْتَدُونَ
([171]) The analogy of the rejecters is like one who yells out a warning which [the other] hears as nothing but a voice calling from near or far. [They are] deaf, dumb and blind, so they do not reason. وَمَثَلُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا كَمَثَلِ الَّذِي يَنْعِقُ بِمَا لَا يَسْمَعُ إِلَّا دُعَاءً وَنِدَاءً صُمٌّ بُكْمٌ عُمْيٌ فَهُمْ لَا يَعْقِلُونَ
([172]) O you who believe, eat from the pure things we have provided for you and be grateful to Allah, if it is indeed he whom you worship. يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا كُلُوا مِنْ طَيِّبَاتِ مَا رَزَقْنَاكُمْ وَاشْكُرُوا لِلَّهِ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ إِيَّاهُ تَعْبُدُونَ
([173]) We have only forbidden you dead animals, blood, pig’s flesh and that which was sacrificed for other than Allah. But whoever is forced by necessity committing neither excess nor transgression, there is no sin upon him. Surely, Allah is very forgiving, very merciful. إِنَّمَا حَرَّمَ عَلَيْكُمُ الْمَيْتَةَ وَالدَّمَ وَلَحْمَ الْخِنْزِيرِ وَمَا أُهِلَّ بِهِ لِغَيْرِ اللهِ فَمَنِ اضْطُرَّ غَيْرَ بَاغٍ وَلَا عَادٍ فَلَا إِثْمَ عَلَيْهِ إِنَّ اللهَ غَفُورٌ رَحِيمٌ
([174]) Surely those who conceal what Allah sent down of the book and sell it out for a paltry price, these consume nothing but fire into their bellies and Allah will not speak to them on the day of resurrection, will not purify them and for them is a painful punishment. إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يَكْتُمُونَ مَا أَنْزَلَ اللهُ مِنَ الْكِتَابِ وَيَشْتَرُونَ بِهِ ثَمَنًا قَلِيلًا أُولَئِكَ مَا يَأْكُلُونَ فِي بُطُونِهِمْ إِلَّا النَّارَ وَلَا يُكَلِّمُهُمُ اللهُ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ وَلَا يُزَكِّيهِمْ وَلَهُمْ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ
([175]) These are the ones who sold off guidance for misguidance and forgiveness for punishment. How persistent they are in striving to the fire. أُولَئِكَ الَّذِينَ اشْتَرَوُا الضَّلَالَةَ بِالْهُدَى وَالْعَذَابَ بِالْمَغْفِرَةِ فَمَا أَصْبَرَهُمْ عَلَى النَّارِ
([176]) That is because Allah has sent down the book with the truth and that those who differed about the book are in schism [which takes them] farther [from guidance]. ذَلِكَ بِأَنَّ اللهَ نَزَّلَ الْكِتَابَ بِالْحَقِّ وَإِنَّ الَّذِينَ اخْتَلَفُوا فِي الْكِتَابِ لَفِي شِقَاقٍ بَعِيدٍ
([177]) It is not righteousness that you turn your faces to the east or the west. Rather, righteousness is one who believes in Allah, the last day, the angels, the book and the prophets and [who] gives the wealth he loves to a relative, to an orphan, to the poor, to a traveler, to those who ask and for freeing of slaves and [who] maintains the prayer and gives the Zakâh and keeps their promise when they make one and [who] are steadfast through poverty, hardship and in battle – these are the ones who were truthful and these are the vigilant. لَيْسَ الْبِرَّ أَنْ تُوَلُّوا وُجُوهَكُمْ قِبَلَ الْمَشْرِقِ وَالْمَغْرِبِ وَلَكِنَّ الْبِرَّ مَنْ آمَنَ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ وَالْمَلَائِكَةِ وَالْكِتَابِ وَالنَّبِيِّينَ وَآتَى الْمَالَ عَلَى حُبِّهِ ذَوِي الْقُرْبَى وَالْيَتَامَى وَالْمَسَاكِينَ وَابْنَ السَّبِيلِ وَالسَّائِلِينَ وَفِي الرِّقَابِ وَأَقَامَ الصَّلَاةَ وَآتَى الزَّكَاةَ وَالْمُوفُونَ بِعَهْدِهِمْ إِذَا عَاهَدُوا وَالصَّابِرِينَ فِي الْبَأْسَاءِ وَالضَّرَّاءِ وَحِينَ الْبَأْسِ أُولَئِكَ الَّذِينَ صَدَقُوا وَأُولَئِكَ هُمُ الْمُتَّقُونَ
([178]) O you who believe, retaliation is prescribed for you for those murdered. A free man for a free man, a slave for a slave and a female for a female. But whoever is forgiven something by his brother must follow up appropriately and make proper payment in a good manner. That is a lightening (of your burden) from your lord and a mercy. So, whoever transgresses after that, will have a painful punishment. يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا كُتِبَ عَلَيْكُمُ الْقِصَاصُ فِي الْقَتْلَى الْحُرُّ بِالْحُرِّ وَالْعَبْدُ بِالْعَبْدِ وَالْأُنْثَى بِالْأُنْثَى فَمَنْ عُفِيَ لَهُ مِنْ أَخِيهِ شَيْءٌ فَاتِّبَاعٌ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَأَدَاءٌ إِلَيْهِ بِإِحْسَانٍ ذَلِكَ تَخْفِيفٌ مِنْ رَبِّكُمْ وَرَحْمَةٌ فَمَنِ اعْتَدَى بَعْدَ ذَلِكَ فَلَهُ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ
([179]) And there is life for you in retaliation, O wise people, that you may safeguard yourselves. وَلَكُمْ فِي الْقِصَاصِ حَيَاةٌ يَا أُولِي الْأَلْبَابِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَتَّقُونَ
([180]) It is prescribed for you, when one of you is near death and he leaves wealth behind, to bequeath it to his parents and relatives appropriately, an obligation upon the conscientious. كُتِبَ عَلَيْكُمْ إِذَا حَضَرَ أَحَدَكُمُ الْمَوْتُ إِنْ تَرَكَ خَيْرًا الْوَصِيَّةُ لِلْوَالِدَيْنِ وَالْأَقْرَبِينَ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ حَقًّا عَلَى الْمُتَّقِينَ
([181]) So whoever changes it after hearing it, the sin therein is only upon those who change it. Allah is surely hearing, knowing. فَمَنْ بَدَّلَهُ بَعْدَمَا سَمِعَهُ فَإِنَّمَا إِثْمُهُ عَلَى الَّذِينَ يُبَدِّلُونَهُ إِنَّ اللهَ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌ
([182]) And whoever anticipates bias or wrong-doing from a testator and so brings about a settlement between them, there is no sin upon him. Allah is surely forgiving, merciful. فَمَنْ خَافَ مِنْ مُوصٍ جَنَفًا أَوْ إِثْمًا فَأَصْلَحَ بَيْنَهُمْ فَلَا إِثْمَ عَلَيْهِ إِنَّ اللهَ غَفُورٌ رَحِيمٌ
([183]) O you who believe, fasting has been prescribed for you as it was prescribed for those before you that you may guard yourselves. يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا كُتِبَ عَلَيْكُمُ الصِّيَامُ كَمَا كُتِبَ عَلَى الَّذِينَ مِنْ قَبْلِكُمْ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَتَّقُونَ
([184]) A set number of days. But whoever among you is sick or travelling, then an equal number from other days. And upon those who are capable of it a ransom, food for one needy person. But whoever volunteers [more] good that is better for them. And that you should fast is better for you if you knew. أَيَّامًا مَعْدُودَاتٍ فَمَنْ كَانَ مِنْكُمْ مَرِيضًا أَوْ عَلَى سَفَرٍ فَعِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَيَّامٍ أُخَرَ وَعَلَى الَّذِينَ يُطِيقُونَهُ فِدْيَةٌ طَعَامُ مِسْكِينٍ فَمَنْ تَطَوَّعَ خَيْرًا فَهُوَ خَيْرٌ لَهُ وَأَنْ تَصُومُوا خَيْرٌ لَكُمْ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ
([185]) The month of Ramadân in which the Qur’ân was sent down, a guidance for the people, proofs for that guidance and the criterion. So, whoever among you is resident during the month should fast it and whoever is ill or travelling, then an [equal] number from other days. Allah wishes for you ease and does not wish for you any hardship and that you may complete the number and exalt Allah for guiding you and that you may show your gratitude. شَهْرُ رَمَضَانَ الَّذِي أُنْزِلَ فِيهِ الْقُرْآنُ هُدًى لِلنَّاسِ وَبَيِّنَاتٍ مِنَ الْهُدَى وَالْفُرْقَانِ فَمَنْ شَهِدَ مِنْكُمُ الشَّهْرَ فَلْيَصُمْهُ وَمَنْ كَانَ مَرِيضًا أَوْ عَلَى سَفَرٍ فَعِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَيَّامٍ أُخَرَ يُرِيدُ اللهُ بِكُمُ الْيُسْرَ وَلَا يُرِيدُ بِكُمُ الْعُسْرَ وَلِتُكْمِلُوا الْعِدَّةَ وَلِتُكَبِّرُوا اللهَ عَلَى مَا هَدَاكُمْ وَلَعَلَّكُمْ تَشْكُرُونَ
([186]) And when my slave asks about me, I am indeed close. I answer the call of any caller who calls out to me. So let them respond to me and believe in me that they may be rightly directed. وَإِذَا سَأَلَكَ عِبَادِي عَنِّي فَإِنِّي قَرِيبٌ أُجِيبُ دَعْوَةَ الدَّاعِ إِذَا دَعَانِ فَلْيَسْتَجِيبُوا لِي وَلْيُؤْمِنُوا بِي لَعَلَّهُمْ يَرْشُدُونَ
([187]) Intimacy with your women has been made lawful for you during the nights of fasting. They are your clothing and you are their clothing. Allah knows that you used to deceive yourselves. He has forgiven you and overlooked it for you. So, go to them and seek whatever Allah has written for you and eat and drink until the white thread of dawn is distinct from the black thread. Then, complete the fast until night and do not go to them while you are isolated for worship in the mosques. Those are Allah’s boundaries so do not approach them. Thus Allah makes his signs clear that you may guard yourselves. أُحِلَّ لَكُمْ لَيْلَةَ الصِّيَامِ الرَّفَثُ إِلَى نِسَائِكُمْ هُنَّ لِبَاسٌ لَكُمْ وَأَنْتُمْ لِبَاسٌ لَهُنَّ عَلِمَ اللهُ أَنَّكُمْ كُنْتُمْ تَخْتَانُونَ أَنْفُسَكُمْ فَتَابَ عَلَيْكُمْ وَعَفَا عَنْكُمْ فَالْآنَ بَاشِرُوهُنَّ وَابْتَغُوا مَا كَتَبَ اللهُ لَكُمْ وَكُلُوا وَاشْرَبُوا حَتَّى يَتَبَيَّنَ لَكُمُ الْخَيْطُ الْأَبْيَضُ مِنَ الْخَيْطِ الْأَسْوَدِ مِنَ الْفَجْرِ ثُمَّ أَتِمُّوا الصِّيَامَ إِلَى اللَّيْلِ وَلَا تُبَاشِرُوهُنَّ وَأَنْتُمْ عَاكِفُونَ فِي الْمَسَاجِدِ تِلْكَ حُدُودُ اللهِ فَلَا تَقْرَبُوهَا كَذَلِكَ يُبَيِّنُ اللهُ آيَاتِهِ لِلنَّاسِ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَتَّقُونَ
([188]) And do not consume each other’s wealth on an invalid basis nor take it to the rulers that you might consume some of the people’s wealth sinfully and knowingly. وَلَا تَأْكُلُوا أَمْوَالَكُمْ بَيْنَكُمْ بِالْبَاطِلِ وَتُدْلُوا بِهَا إِلَى الْحُكَّامِ لِتَأْكُلُوا فَرِيقًا مِنْ أَمْوَالِ النَّاسِ بِالْإِثْمِ وَأَنْتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ
([189]) They ask you about the crescents. Say: They are timings for people and for the Hajj (pilgrimage). And it is not righteousness to enter houses from the rear. Rather righteousness is (the quality of) the one who is vigilant. And enter houses from their doors and beware of Allah that you may succeed. يَسْأَلُونَكَ عَنِ الْأَهِلَّةِ قُلْ هِيَ مَوَاقِيتُ لِلنَّاسِ وَالْحَجِّ وَلَيْسَ الْبِرُّ بِأَنْ تَأْتُوا الْبُيُوتَ مِنْ ظُهُورِهَا وَلَكِنَّ الْبِرَّ مَنِ اتَّقَى وَأْتُوا الْبُيُوتَ مِنْ أَبْوَابِهَا وَاتَّقُوا اللهَ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُفْلِحُونَ
([190]) And fight in Allah’s path those who fight you, and do not transgress. Surely, Allah does not love the transgressors. وَقَاتِلُوا فِي سَبِيلِ اللهِ الَّذِينَ يُقَاتِلُونَكُمْ وَلَا تَعْتَدُوا إِنَّ اللهَ لَا يُحِبُّ الْمُعْتَدِينَ
([191]) Kill them wherever you find them and expel them from where they expelled you. And Al-Fitnah (mayhem) is worse than killing. But do not fight them at the sacred mosque unless they fight you in it. Then if they fight you therein, kill them. This is the fitting recompense for the rejecters. وَاقْتُلُوهُمْ حَيْثُ ثَقِفْتُمُوهُمْ وَأَخْرِجُوهُمْ مِنْ حَيْثُ أَخْرَجُوكُمْ وَالْفِتْنَةُ أَشَدُّ مِنَ الْقَتْلِ وَلَا تُقَاتِلُوهُمْ عِنْدَ الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ حَتَّى يُقَاتِلُوكُمْ فِيهِ فَإِنْ قَاتَلُوكُمْ فَاقْتُلُوهُمْ كَذَلِكَ جَزَاءُ الْكَافِرِينَ
([192]) And if they desist, Allah is surely forgiving, merciful. فَإِنِ انْتَهَوْا فَإِنَّ اللهَ غَفُورٌ رَحِيمٌ
([193]) Fight them until there is no more Fitnah and the way is for Allah, and if they desist, there can be no enmity except toward the oppressors. وَقَاتِلُوهُمْ حَتَّى لَا تَكُونَ فِتْنَةٌ وَيَكُونَ الدِّينُ لِلَّهِ فَإِنِ انْتَهَوْا فَلَا عُدْوَانَ إِلَّا عَلَى الظَّالِمِينَ
([194]) A forbidden month for a forbidden month and for all violations there is retribution. So, whoever commits a violation against you, deliver retribution to them similar to their violation against you and beware of Allah and know that Allah is with those who guard themselves. الشَّهْرُ الْحَرَامُ بِالشَّهْرِ الْحَرَامِ وَالْحُرُمَاتُ قِصَاصٌ فَمَنِ اعْتَدَى عَلَيْكُمْ فَاعْتَدُوا عَلَيْهِ بِمِثْلِ مَا اعْتَدَى عَلَيْكُمْ وَاتَّقُوا اللهَ وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّ اللهَ مَعَ الْمُتَّقِينَ
([195]) And spend in Allah’s way and do not throw yourselves to destruction with your own hands. And do good as Allah surely loves the doers of good. وَأَنْفِقُوا فِي سَبِيلِ اللهِ وَلَا تُلْقُوا بِأَيْدِيكُمْ إِلَى التَّهْلُكَةِ وَأَحْسِنُوا إِنَّ اللهَ يُحِبُّ الْمُحْسِنِينَ
([196]) And complete the Hajj and the `Umrah for Allah, but if you are prevented (from reaching the haram), then [offer] whatever sacrificial animals are easy for you. And do not shave your heads until the sacrificial animal reaches its destination. And whoever among you is ill or has some ailment on his head (requiring shaving the head before finishing the rituals), the compensation is a fast, charity or sacrifice. Then, once you are safe, whoever transitions from minor to major pilgrimage, should offer whatever sacrificial animals are easy for him. But for whoever is unable, then a fast of three days during the pilgrimage and seven after returning home. Those are ten days in total. This is for those whose family are not residents of the vicinity of the Sacred Mosque. And beware of Allah and know that Allah is severe in punishment. وَأَتِمُّوا الْحَجَّ وَالْعُمْرَةَ لِلَّهِ فَإِنْ أُحْصِرْتُمْ فَمَا اسْتَيْسَرَ مِنَ الْهَدْيِ وَلَا تَحْلِقُوا رُءُوسَكُمْ حَتَّى يَبْلُغَ الْهَدْيُ مَحِلَّهُ فَمَنْ كَانَ مِنْكُمْ مَرِيضًا أَوْ بِهِ أَذًى مِنْ رَأْسِهِ فَفِدْيَةٌ مِنْ صِيَامٍ أَوْ صَدَقَةٍ أَوْ نُسُكٍ فَإِذَا أَمِنْتُمْ فَمَنْ تَمَتَّعَ بِالْعُمْرَةِ إِلَى الْحَجِّ فَمَا اسْتَيْسَرَ مِنَ الْهَدْيِ فَمَنْ لَمْ يَجِدْ فَصِيَامُ ثَلَاثَةِ أَيَّامٍ فِي الْحَجِّ وَسَبْعَةٍ إِذَا رَجَعْتُمْ تِلْكَ عَشَرَةٌ كَامِلَةٌ ذَلِكَ لِمَنْ لَمْ يَكُنْ أَهْلُهُ حَاضِرِي الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ وَاتَّقُوا اللهَ وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّ اللهَ شَدِيدُ الْعِقَابِ
([197]) The pilgrimage is known months so whoever makes a commitment therein to perform the pilgrimage [know that] there is no intimacy, no wickedness and no disputing during the pilgrimage. And whatever good you do, Allah knows of it. And take provision with you and the best provision of all is your vigilance and beware of me, O people of wisdom. الْحَجُّ أَشْهُرٌ مَعْلُومَاتٌ فَمَنْ فَرَضَ فِيهِنَّ الْحَجَّ فَلَا رَفَثَ وَلَا فُسُوقَ وَلَا جِدَالَ فِي الْحَجِّ وَمَا تَفْعَلُوا مِنْ خَيْرٍ يَعْلَمْهُ اللهُ وَتَزَوَّدُوا فَإِنَّ خَيْرَ الزَّادِ التَّقْوَى وَاتَّقُونِ يَا أُولِي الْأَلْبَابِ
([198]) There is no sin upon you in seeking bounty from your lord. But when you pour down from `Arafât, remember Allah at the sacred landmark and remember him as he has guided you, though you were before that among the lost. لَيْسَ عَلَيْكُمْ جُنَاحٌ أَنْ تَبْتَغُوا فَضْلًا مِنْ رَبِّكُمْ فَإِذَا أَفَضْتُمْ مِنْ عَرَفَاتٍ فَاذْكُرُوا اللهَ عِنْدَ الْمَشْعَرِ الْحَرَامِ وَاذْكُرُوهُ كَمَا هَدَاكُمْ وَإِنْ كُنْتُمْ مِنْ قَبْلِهِ لَمِنَ الضَّالِّينَ
([199]) Then, pour down from where the people pour down and ask Allah for forgiveness. Allah is surely forgiving, merciful. ثُمَّ أَفِيضُوا مِنْ حَيْثُ أَفَاضَ النَّاسُ وَاسْتَغْفِرُوا اللهَ إِنَّ اللهَ غَفُورٌ رَحِيمٌ
([200]) Then, when you have finished your rituals, remember Allah as you [used to] remember your ancestors or with a more fervent remembrance. For some people say: Our lord, give us in this life, but they have no share in the hereafter. فَإِذَا قَضَيْتُمْ مَنَاسِكَكُمْ فَاذْكُرُوا اللهَ كَذِكْرِكُمْ آبَاءَكُمْ أَوْ أَشَدَّ ذِكْرًا فَمِنَ النَّاسِ مَنْ يَقُولُ رَبَّنَا آتِنَا فِي الدُّنْيَا وَمَا لَهُ فِي الْآخِرَةِ مِنْ خَلَاقٍ
([201]) But others say: Our lord, give us good in this life and good in the hereafter and shield us from the punishment of the fire. وَمِنْهُمْ مَنْ يَقُولُ رَبَّنَا آتِنَا فِي الدُّنْيَا حَسَنَةً وَفِي الْآخِرَةِ حَسَنَةً وَقِنَا عَذَابَ النَّارِ
([202]) These will have a share for what they have earned and Allah is quick to take accounts. أُولَئِكَ لَهُمْ نَصِيبٌ مِمَّا كَسَبُوا وَاللهُ سَرِيعُ الْحِسَابِ
([203]) And remember Allah during set days. And whoever rushes (to finish) in two days has no sin in doing that and whoever takes longer has no sin either, for those who are conscientious. And beware of Allah and know that unto him you will be gathered. وَاذْكُرُوا اللهَ فِي أَيَّامٍ مَعْدُودَاتٍ فَمَنْ تَعَجَّلَ فِي يَوْمَيْنِ فَلَا إِثْمَ عَلَيْهِ وَمَنْ تَأَخَّرَ فَلَا إِثْمَ عَلَيْهِ لِمَنِ اتَّقَى وَاتَّقُوا اللهَ وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّكُمْ إِلَيْهِ تُحْشَرُونَ
([204]) And among people are those whose statements impress you in the life of this world and he calls Allah as a witness to what is in his heart – but he is the most aggressive opponent. وَمِنَ النَّاسِ مَنْ يُعْجِبُكَ قَوْلُهُ فِي الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا وَيُشْهِدُ اللهَ عَلَى مَا فِي قَلْبِهِ وَهُوَ أَلَدُّ الْخِصَامِ
([205]) But when he turns and leaves he strives in the land to spoil it and to destroy crops and cattle. And Allah does not love corruption. وَإِذَا تَوَلَّى سَعَى فِي الْأَرْضِ لِيُفْسِدَ فِيهَا وَيُهْلِكَ الْحَرْثَ وَالنَّسْلَ وَاللهُ لَا يُحِبُّ الْفَسَادَ
([206]) And when it is said to him: Beware of Allah, he is seized by sinful pride. Hell will suffice him – the worst resting place. وَإِذَا قِيلَ لَهُ اتَّقِ اللهَ أَخَذَتْهُ الْعِزَّةُ بِالْإِثْمِ فَحَسْبُهُ جَهَنَّمُ وَلَبِئْسَ الْمِهَادُ
([207]) And among people is one who offers himself, desiring only Allah’s acceptance. And Allah is very compassionate with his slaves. وَمِنَ النَّاسِ مَنْ يَشْرِي نَفْسَهُ ابْتِغَاءَ مَرْضَاتِ اللهِ وَاللهُ رَءُوفٌ بِالْعِبَادِ
([208]) O you who believe, enter into submission completely and do not follow the footsteps of the devil. He is surely your clear enemy. يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا ادْخُلُوا فِي السِّلْمِ كَافَّةً وَلَا تَتَّبِعُوا خُطُوَاتِ الشَّيْطَانِ إِنَّهُ لَكُمْ عَدُوٌّ مُبِينٌ
([209]) But if you deviate after the clear proofs which have come to you, then know that Allah is mighty, wise. فَإِنْ زَلَلْتُمْ مِنْ بَعْدِ مَا جَاءَتْكُمُ الْبَيِّنَاتُ فَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّ اللهَ عَزِيزٌ حَكِيمٌ
([210]) Are they waiting for anything but for Allah to come to them in shadows of the clouds with the angels? And the matter is concluded and to Allah all matters are returned. هَلْ يَنْظُرُونَ إِلَّا أَنْ يَأْتِيَهُمُ اللهُ فِي ظُلَلٍ مِنَ الْغَمَامِ وَالْمَلَائِكَةُ وَقُضِيَ الْأَمْرُ وَإِلَى اللهِ تُرْجَعُ الْأُمُورُ
([211]) Ask the Children of Isra’il how many clear signs we have given them. And whoever changes any good from Allah after it has come to them, Allah is surely severe in retribution. سَلْ بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ كَمْ آتَيْنَاهُمْ مِنْ آيَةٍ بَيِّنَةٍ وَمَنْ يُبَدِّلْ نِعْمَةَ اللهِ مِنْ بَعْدِ مَا جَاءَتْهُ فَإِنَّ اللهَ شَدِيدُ الْعِقَابِ
([212]) The life of this world has been made attractive to those who reject, and they mock those who believe. But those who were vigilant will be above them on the day of resurrection and Allah grants sustenance to whomever he wishes without limit. زُيِّنَ لِلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا الْحَيَاةُ الدُّنْيَا وَيَسْخَرُونَ مِنَ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَالَّذِينَ اتَّقَوْا فَوْقَهُمْ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ وَاللهُ يَرْزُقُ مَنْ يَشَاءُ بِغَيْرِ حِسَابٍ
([213]) People were a single nation. Then Allah sent the prophets as bearers of glad tidings and as warners and sent down with them the book with the truth that they may judge between the people in that about which they differed. And no one differed therein except after clear proofs had come to them out of animosity between them. But Allah guided those who believe to the truth regarding that about which they differed by his permission. Allah guides whoever he wishes to the straight way. كَانَ النَّاسُ أُمَّةً وَاحِدَةً فَبَعَثَ اللهُ النَّبِيِّينَ مُبَشِّرِينَ وَمُنْذِرِينَ وَأَنْزَلَ مَعَهُمُ الْكِتَابَ بِالْحَقِّ لِيَحْكُمَ بَيْنَ النَّاسِ فِيمَا اخْتَلَفُوا فِيهِ وَمَا اخْتَلَفَ فِيهِ إِلَّا الَّذِينَ أُوتُوهُ مِنْ بَعْدِ مَا جَاءَتْهُمُ الْبَيِّنَاتُ بَغْيًا بَيْنَهُمْ فَهَدَى اللهُ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لِمَا اخْتَلَفُوا فِيهِ مِنَ الْحَقِّ بِإِذْنِهِ وَاللهُ يَهْدِي مَنْ يَشَاءُ إِلَى صِرَاطٍ مُسْتَقِيمٍ
([214]) Or do you think that you will enter Paradise though you have not experienced the type (of suffering) experienced by those who have passed away before you? They were touched by poverty and adversity and were shaken until the messenger and those who believed with him said: When is Allah’s help? Verily, Allah’s help is close. أَمْ حَسِبْتُمْ أَنْ تَدْخُلُوا الْجَنَّةَ وَلَمَّا يَأْتِكُمْ مَثَلُ الَّذِينَ خَلَوْا مِنْ قَبْلِكُمْ مَسَّتْهُمُ الْبَأْسَاءُ وَالضَّرَّاءُ وَزُلْزِلُوا حَتَّى يَقُولَ الرَّسُولُ وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا مَعَهُ مَتَى نَصْرُ اللهِ أَلَا إِنَّ نَصْرَ اللهِ قَرِيبٌ
([215]) They ask you what they should spend. Say: Whatever good things you spend, [let it be] for your two parents, relatives, orphans, the needy or travelers (in need). And whatever good you do Allah surely knows it. يَسْأَلُونَكَ مَاذَا يُنْفِقُونَ قُلْ مَا أَنْفَقْتُمْ مِنْ خَيْرٍ فَلِلْوَالِدَيْنِ وَالْأَقْرَبِينَ وَالْيَتَامَى وَالْمَسَاكِينِ وَابْنِ السَّبِيلِ وَمَا تَفْعَلُوا مِنْ خَيْرٍ فَإِنَّ اللهَ بِهِ عَلِيمٌ
([216]) Fighting has been prescribed for you while it is something you dislike. But perhaps you dislike something though it is good for you. And perhaps you like something though it is bad for you. Allah knows but you do not know. كُتِبَ عَلَيْكُمُ الْقِتَالُ وَهُوَ كُرْهٌ لَكُمْ وَعَسَى أَنْ تَكْرَهُوا شَيْئًا وَهُوَ خَيْرٌ لَكُمْ وَعَسَى أَنْ تُحِبُّوا شَيْئًا وَهُوَ شَرٌّ لَكُمْ وَاللهُ يَعْلَمُ وَأَنْتُمْ لَا تَعْلَمُونَ
([217]) They ask you about the sacred month – about fighting therein. Say: Fighting in it is a major (sin), but diverting people from Allah’s way, rejecting Allah, [blocking people from] the sacred mosque and expelling its residents are more grievous with Allah. Fitnah (mayhem) is a bigger offense than killing. And they will never stop fighting you unless they turn you back from your way, if they are able. And whoever among you apostates from his way then dies while still a rejecter, his deeds in this life and the hereafter are all nullified and these are the ones bound to the fire, in it forever. يَسْأَلُونَكَ عَنِ الشَّهْرِ الْحَرَامِ قِتَالٍ فِيهِ قُلْ قِتَالٌ فِيهِ كَبِيرٌ وَصَدٌّ عَنْ سَبِيلِ اللهِ وَكُفْرٌ بِهِ وَالْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ وَإِخْرَاجُ أَهْلِهِ مِنْهُ أَكْبَرُ عِنْدَ اللهِ وَالْفِتْنَةُ أَكْبَرُ مِنَ الْقَتْلِ وَلَا يَزَالُونَ يُقَاتِلُونَكُمْ حَتَّى يَرُدُّوكُمْ عَنْ دِينِكُمْ إِنِ اسْتَطَاعُوا وَمَنْ يَرْتَدِدْ مِنْكُمْ عَنْ دِينِهِ فَيَمُتْ وَهُوَ كَافِرٌ فَأُولَئِكَ حَبِطَتْ أَعْمَالُهُمْ فِي الدُّنْيَا وَالْآخِرَةِ وَأُولَئِكَ أَصْحَابُ النَّارِ هُمْ فِيهَا خَالِدُونَ
([218]) Surely, those who believed and those who migrated and struggled in Allah’s way – these hope for the mercy of Allah, and Allah is very forgiving, merciful. إِنَّ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَالَّذِينَ هَاجَرُوا وَجَاهَدُوا فِي سَبِيلِ اللهِ أُولَئِكَ يَرْجُونَ رَحْمَتَ اللهِ وَاللهُ غَفُورٌ رَحِيمٌ
([219]) They ask you about wine and gambling. Say: In them both is a great sin and [some] benefit for people. But, their sin is greater than their benefit. And they ask you what they should spend. Say: Your surplus. Thus Allah makes his signs clear to you that you might think. يَسْأَلُونَكَ عَنِ الْخَمْرِ وَالْمَيْسِرِ قُلْ فِيهِمَا إِثْمٌ كَبِيرٌ وَمَنَافِعُ لِلنَّاسِ وَإِثْمُهُمَا أَكْبَرُ مِنْ نَفْعِهِمَا وَيَسْأَلُونَكَ مَاذَا يُنْفِقُونَ قُلِ الْعَفْوَ كَذَلِكَ يُبَيِّنُ اللهُ لَكُمُ الْآيَاتِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَتَفَكَّرُونَ
([220]) In this life and the hereafter. And they ask you about the orphans. Say: Doing what is best for them is good. And if you mix (your affairs) with them, then they are your brothers. Allah knows the one who corrupts from the one who improves. And if Allah wished he could have put you in difficulty. Allah is surely mighty, wise. فِي الدُّنْيَا وَالْآخِرَةِ وَيَسْأَلُونَكَ عَنِ الْيَتَامَى قُلْ إِصْلَاحٌ لَهُمْ خَيْرٌ وَإِنْ تُخَالِطُوهُمْ فَإِخْوَانُكُمْ وَاللهُ يَعْلَمُ الْمُفْسِدَ مِنَ الْمُصْلِحِ وَلَوْ شَاءَ اللهُ لَأَعْنَتَكُمْ إِنَّ اللهَ عَزِيزٌ حَكِيمٌ
([221]) And do not marry polytheist women until they believe. A believing slave woman is better than a polytheist woman, though the latter may please you. And do not marry a polytheist man (to a Muslim woman) until they believe. A believing male slave is better than a male polytheist though the latter may please you. They invite to the fire and Allah invites to Paradise and forgiveness by his leave. Allah makes his signs clear to people that they may take heed. وَلَا تَنْكِحُوا الْمُشْرِكَاتِ حَتَّى يُؤْمِنَّ وَلَأَمَةٌ مُؤْمِنَةٌ خَيْرٌ مِنْ مُشْرِكَةٍ وَلَوْ أَعْجَبَتْكُمْ وَلَا تُنْكِحُوا الْمُشْرِكِينَ حَتَّى يُؤْمِنُوا وَلَعَبْدٌ مُؤْمِنٌ خَيْرٌ مِنْ مُشْرِكٍ وَلَوْ أَعْجَبَكُمْ أُولَئِكَ يَدْعُونَ إِلَى النَّارِ وَاللهُ يَدْعُو إِلَى الْجَنَّةِ وَالْمَغْفِرَةِ بِإِذْنِهِ وَيُبَيِّنُ آيَاتِهِ لِلنَّاسِ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَتَذَكَّرُونَ
([222]) And they ask you about menses. Say: It is something harmful, so stay away from women during their menses and do not approach them until they become clean. Once they have cleansed themselves, come to them from where Allah has ordered you. Allah surely loves those who repent much and he loves those who purify themselves. وَيَسْأَلُونَكَ عَنِ الْمَحِيضِ قُلْ هُوَ أَذًى فَاعْتَزِلُوا النِّسَاءَ فِي الْمَحِيضِ وَلَا تَقْرَبُوهُنَّ حَتَّى يَطْهُرْنَ فَإِذَا تَطَهَّرْنَ فَأْتُوهُنَّ مِنْ حَيْثُ أَمَرَكُمُ اللهُ إِنَّ اللهَ يُحِبُّ التَّوَّابِينَ وَيُحِبُّ الْمُتَطَهِّرِينَ
([223]) Your women are like a fertile tract for you. So, come to your tract however you wish. And precede it (with good) for yourselves and beware of Allah and know that you will meet him and give glad tidings to the believers. نِسَاؤُكُمْ حَرْثٌ لَكُمْ فَأْتُوا حَرْثَكُمْ أَنَّى شِئْتُمْ وَقَدِّمُوا لِأَنْفُسِكُمْ وَاتَّقُوا اللهَ وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّكُمْ مُلَاقُوهُ وَبَشِّرِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ
([224]) And do not make Allah an excuse – by your oaths – regarding righteous acts, guarding your actions or making peace between people. And Allah is hearing and knowing. وَلَا تَجْعَلُوا اللهَ عُرْضَةً لِأَيْمَانِكُمْ أَنْ تَبَرُّوا وَتَتَّقُوا وَتُصْلِحُوا بَيْنَ النَّاسِ وَاللهُ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌ
([225]) Allah does not take you to account for your unintended words in [the form of] oaths but he holds you to account for what your hearts have earned, and Allah is very forgiving, forbearing. لَا يُؤَاخِذُكُمُ اللهُ بِاللَّغْوِ فِي أَيْمَانِكُمْ وَلَكِنْ يُؤَاخِذُكُمْ بِمَا كَسَبَتْ قُلُوبُكُمْ وَاللهُ غَفُورٌ حَلِيمٌ
([226]) For those who swear to abstain from their women, a [maximum] waiting period of four months. Then if they return, Allah is surely very forgiving and merciful. لِلَّذِينَ يُؤْلُونَ مِنْ نِسَائِهِمْ تَرَبُّصُ أَرْبَعَةِ أَشْهُرٍ فَإِنْ فَاءُوا فَإِنَّ اللهَ غَفُورٌ رَحِيمٌ
([227]) But if they are determined to divorce, Allah is surely hearing and knowing. وَإِنْ عَزَمُوا الطَّلَاقَ فَإِنَّ اللهَ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌ
([228]) And divorced women must wait unmarried for three periods. And it is not lawful for them to conceal what Allah has created in their wombs, if they believe in Allah and the last day. And their husbands have every right to bring them back (i.e., resume the marriage) during that period if they intend reconciliation. And for women is similar to what is upon them appropriately, but men have a degree over them. And Allah is mighty and wise. وَالْمُطَلَّقَاتُ يَتَرَبَّصْنَ بِأَنْفُسِهِنَّ ثَلَاثَةَ قُرُوءٍ وَلَا يَحِلُّ لَهُنَّ أَنْ يَكْتُمْنَ مَا خَلَقَ اللهُ فِي أَرْحَامِهِنَّ إِنْ كُنَّ يُؤْمِنَّ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ وَبُعُولَتُهُنَّ أَحَقُّ بِرَدِّهِنَّ فِي ذَلِكَ إِنْ أَرَادُوا إِصْلَاحًا وَلَهُنَّ مِثْلُ الَّذِي عَلَيْهِنَّ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَلِلرِّجَالِ عَلَيْهِنَّ دَرَجَةٌ وَاللهُ عَزِيزٌ حَكِيمٌ
([229]) Divorce is two times. Then comes staying together appropriately or separation with kindness. And it is not lawful for you to take anything from what you gave them unless the two [spouses] fear they might not maintain Allah’s boundaries. So if you fear that the two [spouses] will not maintain Allah’s boundaries, there is no sin on either of them in that with which she ransoms herself. Those are Allah’s boundaries and whoever transgresses Allah’s boundaries are the wrongdoers. الطَّلَاقُ مَرَّتَانِ فَإِمْسَاكٌ بِمَعْرُوفٍ أَوْ تَسْرِيحٌ بِإِحْسَانٍ وَلَا يَحِلُّ لَكُمْ أَنْ تَأْخُذُوا مِمَّا آتَيْتُمُوهُنَّ شَيْئًا إِلَّا أَنْ يَخَافَا أَلَّا يُقِيمَا حُدُودَ اللهِ فَإِنْ خِفْتُمْ أَلَّا يُقِيمَا حُدُودَ اللهِ فَلَا جُنَاحَ عَلَيْهِمَا فِيمَا افْتَدَتْ بِهِ تِلْكَ حُدُودُ اللهِ فَلَا تَعْتَدُوهَا وَمَنْ يَتَعَدَّ حُدُودَ اللهِ فَأُولَئِكَ هُمُ الظَّالِمُونَ
([230]) So if he divorces her, she is not lawful to him after that unless she first marries a different husband. Then, if that one divorces her, there is no sin on the original two if they return to one another – if they believe that they will maintain Allah’s boundaries. And those are Allah’s boundaries; he makes them clear to a people who know. فَإِنْ طَلَّقَهَا فَلَا تَحِلُّ لَهُ مِنْ بَعْدُ حَتَّى تَنْكِحَ زَوْجًا غَيْرَهُ فَإِنْ طَلَّقَهَا فَلَا جُنَاحَ عَلَيْهِمَا أَنْ يَتَرَاجَعَا إِنْ ظَنَّا أَنْ يُقِيمَا حُدُودَ اللهِ وَتِلْكَ حُدُودُ اللهِ يُبَيِّنُهَا لِقَوْمٍ يَعْلَمُونَ
([231]) And if you divorce women and they reach their term, then [return and] stay with them harmoniously or release them properly. And do not hold on to them to harm them and violate their rights. And whoever does that has wronged himself. And do not take Allah’s signs as a joke. And remember the good that Allah has given you and that he has sent down to you the book and the wisdom. Allah admonishes you with it. And beware of Allah and know that Allah is omniscient. وَإِذَا طَلَّقْتُمُ النِّسَاءَ فَبَلَغْنَ أَجَلَهُنَّ فَأَمْسِكُوهُنَّ بِمَعْرُوفٍ أَوْ سَرِّحُوهُنَّ بِمَعْرُوفٍ وَلَا تُمْسِكُوهُنَّ ضِرَارًا لِتَعْتَدُوا وَمَنْ يَفْعَلْ ذَلِكَ فَقَدْ ظَلَمَ نَفْسَهُ وَلَا تَتَّخِذُوا آيَاتِ اللهِ هُزُوًا وَاذْكُرُوا نِعْمَتَ اللهِ عَلَيْكُمْ وَمَا أَنْزَلَ عَلَيْكُمْ مِنَ الْكِتَابِ وَالْحِكْمَةِ يَعِظُكُمْ بِهِ وَاتَّقُوا اللهَ وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّ اللهَ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمٌ
([232]) And when you divorce women and they reach their term, then do not suppress them from marrying their husbands if the two come to a proper mutual agreement. With this is admonished whoever among you believes in Allah and the last day. That is purer for you and cleaner. And Allah knows, but you do not know. وَإِذَا طَلَّقْتُمُ النِّسَاءَ فَبَلَغْنَ أَجَلَهُنَّ فَلَا تَعْضُلُوهُنَّ أَنْ يَنْكِحْنَ أَزْوَاجَهُنَّ إِذَا تَرَاضَوْا بَيْنَهُمْ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ ذَلِكَ يُوعَظُ بِهِ مَنْ كَانَ مِنْكُمْ يُؤْمِنُ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ ذَلِكُمْ أَزْكَى لَكُمْ وَأَطْهَرُ وَاللهُ يَعْلَمُ وَأَنْتُمْ لَا تَعْلَمُونَ
([233]) And mothers shall nurse their children for two complete years – for whoever wants to complete the nursing. And upon the father of the child is their appropriate sustenance and clothing. No individual is burdened except with what is within their ability. And no harm should come to the mother because of her child nor should he for whom the child was born [be harmed] because of his child. And upon the heir similar to that (support of the mother). But if the two of them choose to wean the child by mutual consent and consultation, there is no sin upon them in that. And if you wish to contract wet nurses for your children, then there is no sin upon you in that as long as you pay what you committed to properly. And beware of Allah and know that Allah sees all that you do. وَالْوَالِدَاتُ يُرْضِعْنَ أَوْلَادَهُنَّ حَوْلَيْنِ كَامِلَيْنِ لِمَنْ أَرَادَ أَنْ يُتِمَّ الرَّضَاعَةَ وَعَلَى الْمَوْلُودِ لَهُ رِزْقُهُنَّ وَكِسْوَتُهُنَّ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ لَا تُكَلَّفُ نَفْسٌ إِلَّا وُسْعَهَا لَا تُضَارَّ وَالِدَةٌ بِوَلَدِهَا وَلَا مَوْلُودٌ لَهُ بِوَلَدِهِ وَعَلَى الْوَارِثِ مِثْلُ ذَلِكَ فَإِنْ أَرَادَا فِصَالًا عَنْ تَرَاضٍ مِنْهُمَا وَتَشَاوُرٍ فَلَا جُنَاحَ عَلَيْهِمَا وَإِنْ أَرَدْتُمْ أَنْ تَسْتَرْضِعُوا أَوْلَادَكُمْ فَلَا جُنَاحَ عَلَيْكُمْ إِذَا سَلَّمْتُمْ مَا آتَيْتُمْ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَاتَّقُوا اللهَ وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّ اللهَ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ بَصِيرٌ
([234]) And those of you who pass away and leave wives behind, those wives must wait unmarried for four months and ten days. Then, when they reach their term, there is no sin upon you for whatever proper course they take for themselves. And Allah is fully informed of all that you do. وَالَّذِينَ يُتَوَفَّوْنَ مِنْكُمْ وَيَذَرُونَ أَزْوَاجًا يَتَرَبَّصْنَ بِأَنْفُسِهِنَّ أَرْبَعَةَ أَشْهُرٍ وَعَشْرًا فَإِذَا بَلَغْنَ أَجَلَهُنَّ فَلَا جُنَاحَ عَلَيْكُمْ فِيمَا فَعَلْنَ فِي أَنْفُسِهِنَّ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَاللهُ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ خَبِيرٌ
([235]) And there is no sin upon you for marriage proposals which you have hinted at or kept hidden in your hearts. Allah knows that you will talk about them. But, do not arrange anything with them secretly, you may only say something proper. And you must not agree on a bond of marriage until the prescribed term is completed. And know that Allah knows what is in your hearts so beware of him and know that Allah is very forgiving, forbearing. وَلَا جُنَاحَ عَلَيْكُمْ فِيمَا عَرَّضْتُمْ بِهِ مِنْ خِطْبَةِ النِّسَاءِ أَوْ أَكْنَنْتُمْ فِي أَنْفُسِكُمْ عَلِمَ اللهُ أَنَّكُمْ سَتَذْكُرُونَهُنَّ وَلَكِنْ لَا تُوَاعِدُوهُنَّ سِرًّا إِلَّا أَنْ تَقُولُوا قَوْلًا مَعْرُوفًا وَلَا تَعْزِمُوا عُقْدَةَ النِّكَاحِ حَتَّى يَبْلُغَ الْكِتَابُ أَجَلَهُ وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّ اللهَ يَعْلَمُ مَا فِي أَنْفُسِكُمْ فَاحْذَرُوهُ وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّ اللهَ غَفُورٌ حَلِيمٌ
([236]) There is no sin upon you if you divorce women who you have not touched or set their dowry. And give them provision – the wealthy according to his ability and the poor according to his ability – providing for them properly, an obligation upon the doers of good. لَا جُنَاحَ عَلَيْكُمْ إِنْ طَلَّقْتُمُ النِّسَاءَ مَا لَمْ تَمَسُّوهُنَّ أَوْ تَفْرِضُوا لَهُنَّ فَرِيضَةً وَمَتِّعُوهُنَّ عَلَى الْمُوسِعِ قَدَرُهُ وَعَلَى الْمُقْتِرِ قَدَرُهُ مَتَاعًا بِالْمَعْرُوفِ حَقًّا عَلَى الْمُحْسِنِينَ
([237]) And if you divorce them before you have touched them but you have set the dowry, then [their right is] half the amount you set unless they forego their right or the one in whose hand the marriage contract is (the husband) foregoes his right. And to forego it is closer to true piety and do not forget generosity among you. Allah surely sees all that you do. وَإِنْ طَلَّقْتُمُوهُنَّ مِنْ قَبْلِ أَنْ تَمَسُّوهُنَّ وَقَدْ فَرَضْتُمْ لَهُنَّ فَرِيضَةً فَنِصْفُ مَا فَرَضْتُمْ إِلَّا أَنْ يَعْفُونَ أَوْ يَعْفُوَ الَّذِي بِيَدِهِ عُقْدَةُ النِّكَاحِ وَأَنْ تَعْفُوا أَقْرَبُ لِلتَّقْوَى وَلَا تَنْسَوُا الْفَضْلَ بَيْنَكُمْ إِنَّ اللهَ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ بَصِيرٌ
([238]) Maintain the prayers and the middle prayer (in particular) and stand before Allah in obedience. حَافِظُوا عَلَى الصَّلَوَاتِ وَالصَّلَاةِ الْوُسْطَى وَقُومُوا لِلَّهِ قَانِتِينَ
([239]) And if you fear, then [make the prayer] walking or mounted. Then when you are safe, remember Allah in the manner He has taught you which you did not know before. فَإِنْ خِفْتُمْ فَرِجَالًا أَوْ رُكْبَانًا فَإِذَا أَمِنْتُمْ فَاذْكُرُوا اللهَ كَمَا عَلَّمَكُمْ مَا لَمْ تَكُونُوا تَعْلَمُونَ
([240]) Those of you who pass away and leave wives [should make] a bequeathal to their wives of one year’s provision and not expel them. If they leave of their own volition, there is no sin upon you for whatever proper course they take for themselves. And Allah is mighty, wise. الَّذِينَ يُتَوَفَّوْنَ مِنْكُمْ وَيَذَرُونَ أَزْوَاجًا وَصِيَّةً لِأَزْوَاجِهِمْ مَتَاعًا إِلَى الْحَوْلِ غَيْرَ إِخْرَاجٍ فَإِنْ خَرَجْنَ فَلَا جُنَاحَ عَلَيْكُمْ فِي مَا فَعَلْنَ فِي أَنْفُسِهِنَّ مِنْ مَعْرُوفٍ وَاللهُ عَزِيزٌ حَكِيمٌ
([241]) And for divorcees is a reasonable provision, an obligation upon the vigilant. وَلِلْمُطَلَّقَاتِ مَتَاعٌ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ حَقًّا عَلَى الْمُتَّقِينَ
([242]) Thus, Allah clarifies his signs for you that you may use reason. كَذَلِكَ يُبَيِّنُ اللهُ لَكُمْ آيَاتِهِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَعْقِلُونَ
([243]) Have you not seen those who came out from their homes in the thousands but fearing death? So Allah said to them: Die. Then, he resurrected them. Allah is very generous with people, but most people show no gratitude. لَمْ تَرَ إِلَى الَّذِينَ خَرَجُوا مِنْ دِيَارِهِمْ وَهُمْ أُلُوفٌ حَذَرَ الْمَوْتِ فَقَالَ لَهُمُ اللهُ مُوتُوا ثُمَّ أَحْيَاهُمْ إِنَّ اللهَ لَذُو فَضْلٍ عَلَى النَّاسِ وَلَكِنَّ أَكْثَرَ النَّاسِ لَا يَشْكُرُونَ
([244]) And fight in the way of Allah and know that Allah is hearer and knower. وَقَاتِلُوا فِي سَبِيلِ اللهِ وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّ اللهَ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌ
([245]) Who will lend a good loan to Allah so that it is multiplied many times over? And Allah withholds and grants and to him you return. مَنْ ذَا الَّذِي يُقْرِضُ اللهَ قَرْضًا حَسَنًا فَيُضَاعِفَهُ لَهُ أَضْعَافًا كَثِيرَةً وَاللهُ يَقْبِضُ وَيَبْسُطُ وَإِلَيْهِ تُرْجَعُونَ
([246]) Have you not seen the notables from the Children of Isrâ’îl after the time of Mûsâ – when they said to a prophet of theirs: Send us an angel so we can fight in Allah’s way? He said: Wouldn’t you – if fighting was prescribed for you – just not fight? They said: And what is wrong with us that we should not fight in Allah’s way after we have been driven out of our homes and away from our families? But, when fighting was prescribed for them they turned away, except for a few of them. And Allah knows the wrongdoers. أَلَمْ تَرَ إِلَى الْمَلَإِ مِنْ بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ مِنْ بَعْدِ مُوسَى إِذْ قَالُوا لِنَبِيٍّ لَهُمُ ابْعَثْ لَنَا مَلِكًا نُقَاتِلْ فِي سَبِيلِ اللهِ قَالَ هَلْ عَسَيْتُمْ إِنْ كُتِبَ عَلَيْكُمُ الْقِتَالُ أَلَّا تُقَاتِلُوا قَالُوا وَمَا لَنَا أَلَّا نُقَاتِلَ فِي سَبِيلِ اللهِ وَقَدْ أُخْرِجْنَا مِنْ دِيَارِنَا وَأَبْنَائِنَا فَلَمَّا كُتِبَ عَلَيْهِمُ الْقِتَالُ تَوَلَّوْا إِلَّا قَلِيلًا مِنْهُمْ وَاللهُ عَلِيمٌ بِالظَّالِمِينَ
([247]) And their prophet said to them: Allah has sent for you Tâlût as your king. They said: How could he be a king over us when we are more deserving of kingship than he is and he was not given great wealth? He said: Allah has surely chosen him over you and has expanded his knowledge and strengthened him physically. And Allah gives his authority to whomever he wishes. And Allah is expansive, knowing. وَقَالَ لَهُمْ نَبِيُّهُمْ إِنَّ اللهَ قَدْ بَعَثَ لَكُمْ طَالُوتَ مَلِكًا قَالُوا أَنَّى يَكُونُ لَهُ الْمُلْكُ عَلَيْنَا وَنَحْنُ أَحَقُّ بِالْمُلْكِ مِنْهُ وَلَمْ يُؤْتَ سَعَةً مِنَ الْمَالِ قَالَ إِنَّ اللهَ اصْطَفَاهُ عَلَيْكُمْ وَزَادَهُ بَسْطَةً فِي الْعِلْمِ وَالْجِسْمِ وَاللهُ يُؤْتِي مُلْكَهُ مَنْ يَشَاءُ وَاللهُ وَاسِعٌ عَلِيمٌ
([248]) And their prophet said to them: The sign of his authority is that the chest will return to you. In it you will find peace from your lord and relics from the people of Mûsâ and the people of Hârûn. [It will be] carried by angels. In this there is a sign for you if you are indeed believers. وَقَالَ لَهُمْ نَبِيُّهُمْ إِنَّ آيَةَ مُلْكِهِ أَنْ يَأْتِيَكُمُ التَّابُوتُ فِيهِ سَكِينَةٌ مِنْ رَبِّكُمْ وَبَقِيَّةٌ مِمَّا تَرَكَ آلُ مُوسَى وَآلُ هَارُونَ تَحْمِلُهُ الْمَلَائِكَةُ إِنَّ فِي ذَلِكَ لَآيَةً لَكُمْ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ مُؤْمِنِينَ
([249]) So when Tâlût set out with the soldiers he said: Allah is testing you with a river. So, whoever drinks from it is not with me and whoever drinks nothing from it is with me except for one who scooped some water with his hand. And they all drank from it except for a few of them. Then, once they had crossed it – he and those who believed with him – they said: We have no power today to face Jâlût and his forces. (But) those who realized that they would meet Allah said: How many small forces have defeated a larger group with Allah’s permission? And Allah is with those who are patient and steadfast. فَلَمَّا فَصَلَ طَالُوتُ بِالْجُنُودِ قَالَ إِنَّ اللهَ مُبْتَلِيكُمْ بِنَهَرٍ فَمَنْ شَرِبَ مِنْهُ فَلَيْسَ مِنِّي وَمَنْ لَمْ يَطْعَمْهُ فَإِنَّهُ مِنِّي إِلَّا مَنِ اغْتَرَفَ غُرْفَةً بِيَدِهِ فَشَرِبُوا مِنْهُ إِلَّا قَلِيلًا مِنْهُمْ فَلَمَّا جَاوَزَهُ هُوَ وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا مَعَهُ قَالُوا لَا طَاقَةَ لَنَا الْيَوْمَ بِجَالُوتَ وَجُنُودِهِ قَالَ الَّذِينَ يَظُنُّونَ أَنَّهُمْ مُلَاقُو اللهِ كَمْ مِنْ فِئَةٍ قَلِيلَةٍ غَلَبَتْ فِئَةً كَثِيرَةً بِإِذْنِ اللهِ وَاللهُ مَعَ الصَّابِرِينَ
([250]) And when they faced Jâlût and his forces they said: Our lord! Grant us patience, make our steps firm and grant us victory over the rejecting people. وَلَمَّا بَرَزُوا لِجَالُوتَ وَجُنُودِهِ قَالُوا رَبَّنَا أَفْرِغْ عَلَيْنَا صَبْرًا وَثَبِّتْ أَقْدَامَنَا وَانْصُرْنَا عَلَى الْقَوْمِ الْكَافِرِينَ
([251]) So they defeated them with Allah’s permission and Dâwûd killed Jâlût. And Allah gave him authority and wisdom and taught him whatever he wished. And were it not for Allah’s repelling some people with others, the land would be corrupted. But Allah is most generous with the nations. فَهَزَمُوهُمْ بِإِذْنِ اللهِ وَقَتَلَ دَاوُودُ جَالُوتَ وَآتَاهُ اللهُ الْمُلْكَ وَالْحِكْمَةَ وَعَلَّمَهُ مِمَّا يَشَاءُ وَلَوْلَا دَفْعُ اللهِ النَّاسَ بَعْضَهُمْ بِبَعْضٍ لَفَسَدَتِ الْأَرْضُ وَلَكِنَّ اللهَ ذُو فَضْلٍ عَلَى الْعَالَمِينَ
([252]) Those are the signs of Allah. We recite them to you truthfully and you are surely among those sent. تِلْكَ آيَاتُ اللهِ نَتْلُوهَا عَلَيْكَ بِالْحَقِّ وَإِنَّكَ لَمِنَ الْمُرْسَلِينَ
([253]) Those messengers, we have favored some of them over others. Some of them Allah spoke to and he elevated some by degrees. And we gave `Îsâ the son of Maryam definitive signs and aided him with the spirit of purity. And had Allah wished, those who came after them would not have fought one another after clear signs had come to them. But they disagreed. Some of them believed and others rejected. And if Allah wished they would not have fought, but Allah does whatever he wishes. تِلْكَ الرُّسُلُ فَضَّلْنَا بَعْضَهُمْ عَلَى بَعْضٍ مِنْهُمْ مَنْ كَلَّمَ اللهُ وَرَفَعَ بَعْضَهُمْ دَرَجَاتٍ وَآتَيْنَا عِيسَى ابْنَ مَرْيَمَ الْبَيِّنَاتِ وَأَيَّدْنَاهُ بِرُوحِ الْقُدُسِ وَلَوْ شَاءَ اللهُ مَا اقْتَتَلَ الَّذِينَ مِنْ بَعْدِهِمْ مِنْ بَعْدِ مَا جَاءَتْهُمُ الْبَيِّنَاتُ وَلَكِنِ اخْتَلَفُوا فَمِنْهُمْ مَنْ آمَنَ وَمِنْهُمْ مَنْ كَفَرَ وَلَوْ شَاءَ اللهُ مَا اقْتَتَلُوا وَلَكِنَّ اللهَ يَفْعَلُ مَا يُرِيدُ
([254]) O you who believe, spend some of what we have provided you before a day comes in which there will be no exchanges, no friendship and no intercession. And the rejecters are the wrongdoers. يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا أَنْفِقُوا مِمَّا رَزَقْنَاكُمْ مِنْ قَبْلِ أَنْ يَأْتِيَ يَوْمٌ لَا بَيْعٌ فِيهِ وَلَا خُلَّةٌ وَلَا شَفَاعَةٌ وَالْكَافِرُونَ هُمُ الظَّالِمُونَ
([255]) Allah, there is no deity besides him the living, the maintainer. Neither drowsiness nor sleep ever takes him. To him belongs all that is in the heavens and all that is in the earth. Who is he who intercedes before him except with his permission? He knows what is before them and what is behind them, but they grasp nothing of his knowledge except whatever he wishes [them to]. His throne spans the heavens and the earth and guarding them cannot tire. And he is the high, the great. اللهُ لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا هُوَ الْحَيُّ الْقَيُّومُ لَا تَأْخُذُهُ سِنَةٌ وَلَا نَوْمٌ لَهُ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الْأَرْضِ مَنْ ذَا الَّذِي يَشْفَعُ عِنْدَهُ إِلَّا بِإِذْنِهِ يَعْلَمُ مَا بَيْنَ أَيْدِيهِمْ وَمَا خَلْفَهُمْ وَلَا يُحِيطُونَ بِشَيْءٍ مِنْ عِلْمِهِ إِلَّا بِمَا شَاءَ وَسِعَ كُرْسِيُّهُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ وَلَا يَئُودُهُ حِفْظُهُمَا وَهُوَ الْعَلِيُّ الْعَظِيمُ
([256]) There is no compulsion to the way. The right direction has stood out clearly from the wrong direction. So whoever rejects all false deities and believes in Allah has seized the most trustworthy hand-hold which will never fail. And Allah is hearing, knowing. لَا إِكْرَاهَ فِي الدِّينِ قَدْ تَبَيَّنَ الرُّشْدُ مِنَ الْغَيِّ فَمَنْ يَكْفُرْ بِالطَّاغُوتِ وَيُؤْمِنْ بِاللَّهِ فَقَدِ اسْتَمْسَكَ بِالْعُرْوَةِ الْوُثْقَى لَا انْفِصَامَ لَهَا وَاللهُ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌ
([257]) Allah is the ally of those who believe. He takes them out of darkness to light. But those who reject, their allies are the false deities. They take them out of light and into darkness. These are bound to the fire and in it forever. اللهُ وَلِيُّ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا يُخْرِجُهُمْ مِنَ الظُّلُمَاتِ إِلَى النُّورِ وَالَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا أَوْلِيَاؤُهُمُ الطَّاغُوتُ يُخْرِجُونَهُمْ مِنَ النُّورِ إِلَى الظُّلُمَاتِ أُولَئِكَ أَصْحَابُ النَّارِ هُمْ فِيهَا خَالِدُونَ
([258]) Did you not see the one who disputed with Ibrâhîm about his lord because Allah had given him authority? When Ibrâhîm said: My lord is the one who brings to life and causes to die. He said: I bring to life and cause to die. Ibrâhîm said: Well, my lord brings the sun up from the east, so bring it up from the west. And so the rejecter was dumbfounded. And Allah does not guide the wrongdoing people. أَلَمْ تَرَ إِلَى الَّذِي حَاجَّ إِبْرَاهِيمَ فِي رَبِّهِ أَنْ آتَاهُ اللهُ الْمُلْكَ إِذْ قَالَ إِبْرَاهِيمُ رَبِّيَ الَّذِي يُحْيِي وَيُمِيتُ قَالَ أَنَا أُحْيِي وَأُمِيتُ قَالَ إِبْرَاهِيمُ فَإِنَّ اللهَ يَأْتِي بِالشَّمْسِ مِنَ الْمَشْرِقِ فَأْتِ بِهَا مِنَ الْمَغْرِبِ فَبُهِتَ الَّذِي كَفَرَ وَاللهُ لَا يَهْدِي الْقَوْمَ الظَّالِمِينَ
([259]) Or like the one who passed by a village which was deserted, [and collapsed] on its foundations. He said: How can Allah bring this to life after its death? So Allah caused him to remain dead for a hundred years and then brought him back to life. He said: How long did you stay? He said: I stayed a day or part of a day. He said: Rather, you stayed for a hundred years. Look at your food and drink, they have not changed. But look at your donkey! That we may make you a sign for the people. And look at the bones, how we stand them up and then cover them with flesh. When all became clear to him he said: I know that Allah is in complete control over all things. أَوْ كَالَّذِي مَرَّ عَلَى قَرْيَةٍ وَهِيَ خَاوِيَةٌ عَلَى عُرُوشِهَا قَالَ أَنَّى يُحْيِي هَذِهِ اللهُ بَعْدَ مَوْتِهَا فَأَمَاتَهُ اللهُ مِائَةَ عَامٍ ثُمَّ بَعَثَهُ قَالَ كَمْ لَبِثْتَ قَالَ لَبِثْتُ يَوْمًا أَوْ بَعْضَ يَوْمٍ قَالَ بَلْ لَبِثْتَ مِائَةَ عَامٍ فَانْظُرْ إِلَى طَعَامِكَ وَشَرَابِكَ لَمْ يَتَسَنَّهْ وَانْظُرْ إِلَى حِمَارِكَ وَلِنَجْعَلَكَ آيَةً لِلنَّاسِ وَانْظُرْ إِلَى الْعِظَامِ كَيْفَ نُنْشِزُهَا ثُمَّ نَكْسُوهَا لَحْمًا فَلَمَّا تَبَيَّنَ لَهُ قَالَ أَعْلَمُ أَنَّ اللهَ عَلَى كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ
([260]) And when Ibrâhîm said: O My lord, show me how you bring the dead to life. He said: Do you not believe? He said: On the contrary, but just so my heart may be at peace. He said: Gather four birds and gain their trust. Then put a piece of a bird on the top of each mountain. Then, call them and they will rush to you. And know that Allah is mighty, wise. وَإِذْ قَالَ إِبْرَاهِيمُ رَبِّ أَرِنِي كَيْفَ تُحْيِ الْمَوْتَى قَالَ أَوَلَمْ تُؤْمِنْ قَالَ بَلَى وَلَكِنْ لِيَطْمَئِنَّ قَلْبِي قَالَ فَخُذْ أَرْبَعَةً مِنَ الطَّيْرِ فَصُرْهُنَّ إِلَيْكَ ثُمَّ اجْعَلْ عَلَى كُلِّ جَبَلٍ مِنْهُنَّ جُزْءًا ثُمَّ ادْعُهُنَّ يَأْتِينَكَ سَعْيًا وَاعْلَمْ أَنَّ اللهَ عَزِيزٌ حَكِيمٌ
([261]) The analogy of those who spend their wealth in Allah’s way is like a grain. It grows seven ears with one hundred grains in each ear. And Allah multiplies for whomever he wishes. And Allah is expansive, knowing. مَثَلُ الَّذِينَ يُنْفِقُونَ أَمْوَالَهُمْ فِي سَبِيلِ اللهِ كَمَثَلِ حَبَّةٍ أَنْبَتَتْ سَبْعَ سَنَابِلَ فِي كُلِّ سُنْبُلَةٍ مِائَةُ حَبَّةٍ وَاللهُ يُضَاعِفُ لِمَنْ يَشَاءُ وَاللهُ وَاسِعٌ عَلِيمٌ
([262]) Those who spend their wealth in Allah’s way and then do not follow up what they have spent with either meanness or maltreatment shall have their reward with their lord and will experience no fear nor will they grieve. الَّذِينَ يُنْفِقُونَ أَمْوَالَهُمْ فِي سَبِيلِ اللهِ ثُمَّ لَا يُتْبِعُونَ مَا أَنْفَقُوا مَنًّا وَلَا أَذًى لَهُمْ أَجْرُهُمْ عِنْدَ رَبِّهِمْ وَلَا خَوْفٌ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلَا هُمْ يَحْزَنُونَ
([263]) Appropriate words and forgiveness are better than a charity followed by maltreatment. And Allah is without need, forbearing. قَوْلٌ مَعْرُوفٌ وَمَغْفِرَةٌ خَيْرٌ مِنْ صَدَقَةٍ يَتْبَعُهَا أَذًى وَاللهُ غَنِيٌّ حَلِيمٌ
([264]) O you who believe, do not invalidate your charity with meanness and maltreatment, like one who spends his wealth to be seen by people but does not believe in Allah nor in the last day. His analogy is like a smooth stone on which is some dust. Heavy rain falls on it and leaves it bare. They don’t control any of what they have earned. And Allah does not guide a people who reject. يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تُبْطِلُوا صَدَقَاتِكُمْ بِالْمَنِّ وَالْأَذَى كَالَّذِي يُنْفِقُ مَالَهُ رِئَاءَ النَّاسِ وَلَا يُؤْمِنُ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ فَمَثَلُهُ كَمَثَلِ صَفْوَانٍ عَلَيْهِ تُرَابٌ فَأَصَابَهُ وَابِلٌ فَتَرَكَهُ صَلْدًا لَا يَقْدِرُونَ عَلَى شَيْءٍ مِمَّا كَسَبُوا وَاللهُ لَا يَهْدِي الْقَوْمَ الْكَافِرِينَ
([265]) The analogy of those who spend their wealth seeking Allah’s acceptance and based on their firm conviction is like a garden on a high ground. A heavy rain falls on it and it brings forth double the amount of food crops. And if a heavy rain does not fall on it, then a light rain suffices. And Allah sees all that you do. وَمَثَلُ الَّذِينَ يُنْفِقُونَ أَمْوَالَهُمُ ابْتِغَاءَ مَرْضَاتِ اللهِ وَتَثْبِيتًا مِنْ أَنْفُسِهِمْ كَمَثَلِ جَنَّةٍ بِرَبْوَةٍ أَصَابَهَا وَابِلٌ فَآتَتْ أُكُلَهَا ضِعْفَيْنِ فَإِنْ لَمْ يُصِبْهَا وَابِلٌ فَطَلٌّ وَاللهُ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ بَصِيرٌ
([266]) Would any of you wish to have a garden of date palms and grape vines with rivers flowing below it and have all kind of fruits therein, but he became old and had only weak descendants? And then it is hit by a storm in which there is fire so that it burns up? Thus Allah makes his signs clear for you that you may think. أَيَوَدُّ أَحَدُكُمْ أَنْ تَكُونَ لَهُ جَنَّةٌ مِنْ نَخِيلٍ وَأَعْنَابٍ تَجْرِي مِنْ تَحْتِهَا الْأَنْهَارُ لَهُ فِيهَا مِنْ كُلِّ الثَّمَرَاتِ وَأَصَابَهُ الْكِبَرُ وَلَهُ ذُرِّيَّةٌ ضُعَفَاءُ فَأَصَابَهَا إِعْصَارٌ فِيهِ نَارٌ فَاحْتَرَقَتْ كَذَلِكَ يُبَيِّنُ اللهُ لَكُمُ الْآيَاتِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَتَفَكَّرُونَ
([267]) O you who believe, spend some of the good things you have gained and from what we have brought forth for you from the earth. And do not seek out the worst of it to give when you would only take it reluctantly as something deficient. And know that Allah is free of need, and worthy of all praise. يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا أَنْفِقُوا مِنْ طَيِّبَاتِ مَا كَسَبْتُمْ وَمِمَّا أَخْرَجْنَا لَكُمْ مِنَ الْأَرْضِ وَلَا تَيَمَّمُوا الْخَبِيثَ مِنْهُ تُنْفِقُونَ وَلَسْتُمْ بِآخِذِيهِ إِلَّا أَنْ تُغْمِضُوا فِيهِ وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّ اللهَ غَنِيٌّ حَمِيدٌ
([268]) The devil threatens you with poverty and orders you to commit vulgarity but Allah promises you forgiveness from himself and generosity. And Allah is expansive, knowing. الشَّيْطَانُ يَعِدُكُمُ الْفَقْرَ وَيَأْمُرُكُمْ بِالْفَحْشَاءِ وَاللهُ يَعِدُكُمْ مَغْفِرَةً مِنْهُ وَفَضْلًا وَاللهُ وَاسِعٌ عَلِيمٌ
([269]) He grants wisdom to whomever he wishes. And whoever is granted wisdom has been given much good. But none will grasp this except those of great intelligence. يُؤْتِي الْحِكْمَةَ مَنْ يَشَاءُ وَمَنْ يُؤْتَ الْحِكْمَةَ فَقَدْ أُوتِيَ خَيْرًا كَثِيرًا وَمَا يَذَّكَّرُ إِلَّا أُولُو الْأَلْبَابِ
([270]) And whatever expenditure you have made or oath you have sworn, Allah surely knows it. And the wrongdoers have no helpers. وَمَا أَنْفَقْتُمْ مِنْ نَفَقَةٍ أَوْ نَذَرْتُمْ مِنْ نَذْرٍ فَإِنَّ اللهَ يَعْلَمُهُ وَمَا لِلظَّالِمِينَ مِنْ أَنْصَارٍ
([271]) If you expose your acts of charity, that is fine. But if you conceal them and give them to the needy, that is even better for you. And it will expiate some of your bad deeds. And Allah is fully aware of what you do. إِنْ تُبْدُوا الصَّدَقَاتِ فَنِعِمَّا هِيَ وَإِنْ تُخْفُوهَا وَتُؤْتُوهَا الْفُقَرَاءَ فَهُوَ خَيْرٌ لَكُمْ وَيُكَفِّرُ عَنْكُمْ مِنْ سَيِّئَاتِكُمْ وَاللهُ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ خَبِيرٌ
([272]) You are not responsible for their guidance. Rather, Allah guides whoever he wishes. And whatever good you spend is for yourselves. And you spend only seeking the face of Allah. And whatever good you spend will be repaid to you in full, and you will not be wronged. لَيْسَ عَلَيْكَ هُدَاهُمْ وَلَكِنَّ اللهَ يَهْدِي مَنْ يَشَاءُ وَمَا تُنْفِقُوا مِنْ خَيْرٍ فَلِأَنْفُسِكُمْ وَمَا تُنْفِقُونَ إِلَّا ابْتِغَاءَ وَجْهِ اللهِ وَمَا تُنْفِقُوا مِنْ خَيْرٍ يُوَفَّ إِلَيْكُمْ وَأَنْتُمْ لَا تُظْلَمُونَ
([273]) For the poor who are occupied [fighting] in Allah’s way. They are unable to strike out in the land. The ignorant one thinks that they are wealthy because of their dignity. You can know them by their signs; they do not ask people persistently. And whatever good you spend, Allah surely knows it. لِلْفُقَرَاءِ الَّذِينَ أُحْصِرُوا فِي سَبِيلِ اللهِ لَا يَسْتَطِيعُونَ ضَرْبًا فِي الْأَرْضِ يَحْسَبُهُمُ الْجَاهِلُ أَغْنِيَاءَ مِنَ التَّعَفُّفِ تَعْرِفُهُمْ بِسِيمَاهُمْ لَا يَسْأَلُونَ النَّاسَ إِلْحَافًا وَمَا تُنْفِقُوا مِنْ خَيْرٍ فَإِنَّ اللهَ بِهِ عَلِيمٌ
([274]) Those who spend their wealth by night and by day, secretly and publicly, have their reward with their lord and will experience no fear nor will they grieve. الَّذِينَ يُنْفِقُونَ أَمْوَالَهُمْ بِاللَّيْلِ وَالنَّهَارِ سِرًّا وَعَلَانِيَةً فَلَهُمْ أَجْرُهُمْ عِنْدَ رَبِّهِمْ وَلَا خَوْفٌ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلَا هُمْ يَحْزَنُونَ
([275]) Those who consume interest will not stand except as one stands who has been debilitated by the devil’s touch. That is because they say: Interest is just like buying and selling. But Allah made buying and selling lawful and forbad interest. So whoever receives an admonition from his lord and desists, can keep what went before and his matter is up to Allah. But whoever goes back, these are bound to the fire and in it forever. الَّذِينَ يَأْكُلُونَ الرِّبَا لَا يَقُومُونَ إِلَّا كَمَا يَقُومُ الَّذِي يَتَخَبَّطُهُ الشَّيْطَانُ مِنَ الْمَسِّ ذَلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمْ قَالُوا إِنَّمَا الْبَيْعُ مِثْلُ الرِّبَا وَأَحَلَّ اللهُ الْبَيْعَ وَحَرَّمَ الرِّبَا فَمَنْ جَاءَهُ مَوْعِظَةٌ مِنْ رَبِّهِ فَانْتَهَى فَلَهُ مَا سَلَفَ وَأَمْرُهُ إِلَى اللهِ وَمَنْ عَادَ فَأُولَئِكَ أَصْحَابُ النَّارِ هُمْ فِيهَا خَالِدُونَ
([276]) Allah nullifies interest but causes charity to grow. And Allah does not love any vehement rejecter who is habitually sinful. يَمْحَقُ اللهُ الرِّبَا وَيُرْبِي الصَّدَقَاتِ وَاللهُ لَا يُحِبُّ كُلَّ كَفَّارٍ أَثِيمٍ
([277]) Surely those who believe, act righteously, maintain the prayer and pay the Zakâh will have their reward with their lord and they will experience no fear nor will they grieve. إِنَّ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ وَأَقَامُوا الصَّلَاةَ وَآتَوُا الزَّكَاةَ لَهُمْ أَجْرُهُمْ عِنْدَ رَبِّهِمْ وَلَا خَوْفٌ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلَا هُمْ يَحْزَنُونَ
([278]) O you who believe, beware of Allah and drop whatever interest remains if you are believers. يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا اتَّقُوا اللهَ وَذَرُوا مَا بَقِيَ مِنَ الرِّبَا إِنْ كُنْتُمْ مُؤْمِنِينَ
([279]) And if you fail to do so then be notified of war from Allah and his messenger. But if you repent, you may keep your capital, neither oppressing nor being oppressed. فَإِنْ لَمْ تَفْعَلُوا فَأْذَنُوا بِحَرْبٍ مِنَ اللهِ وَرَسُولِهِ وَإِنْ تُبْتُمْ فَلَكُمْ رُءُوسُ أَمْوَالِكُمْ لَا تَظْلِمُونَ وَلَا تُظْلَمُونَ
([280]) And if he is in difficulty, then allow a delay until better times. But if you give it [up] as charity that is better for you if you only knew. وَإِنْ كَانَ ذُو عُسْرَةٍ فَنَظِرَةٌ إِلَى مَيْسَرَةٍ وَأَنْ تَصَدَّقُوا خَيْرٌ لَكُمْ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ
([281]) And guard yourselves against a day when you will be returned to Allah and then every soul will be paid exactly what it earned and they will not be wronged. وَاتَّقُوا يَوْمًا تُرْجَعُونَ فِيهِ إِلَى اللهِ ثُمَّ تُوَفَّى كُلُّ نَفْسٍ مَا كَسَبَتْ وَهُمْ لَا يُظْلَمُونَ
([282]) O you who believe, when you undertake any obligation of debt between yourselves to a specified deadline, write it down. And let a recorder write it down for you correctly. And no capable recorder should refuse to write as Allah has taught him, so let him write. And let the one upon whom is the obligation recite the [agreed upon] terms and let him beware of Allah his lord and not omit anything from it. But if the one upon whom the obligation rests is incompetent, weak or unable to recite the terms, then his guardian is to recite them justly. And bring as witnesses two from your men, and if they are not available, then one man and two women among those you accept as witnesses, so that if one of them (the two women) errs, the other one can correct her. And let no witness refuse if they are called. And do not be weary to commit it to writing, whether it be small or large, along with its due-date. That is more just with Allah, more suitable as evidence, and better to prevent uncertainty among yourselves. But in the case of a real-time exchange which you transact between yourselves on the spot, there is no sin if you do not write it down. And take witnesses whenever you conduct sales. And no scribe should be harmed nor any witness. And if you do harm them, it is wickedness from you. And beware of Allah and Allah teaches you and Allah knows each and every thing. يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِذَا تَدَايَنْتُمْ بِدَيْنٍ إِلَى أَجَلٍ مُسَمًّى فَاكْتُبُوهُ وَلْيَكْتُبْ بَيْنَكُمْ كَاتِبٌ بِالْعَدْلِ وَلَا يَأْبَ كَاتِبٌ أَنْ يَكْتُبَ كَمَا عَلَّمَهُ اللهُ فَلْيَكْتُبْ وَلْيُمْلِلِ الَّذِي عَلَيْهِ الْحَقُّ وَلْيَتَّقِ اللهَ رَبَّهُ وَلَا يَبْخَسْ مِنْهُ شَيْئًا فَإِنْ كَانَ الَّذِي عَلَيْهِ الْحَقُّ سَفِيهًا أَوْ ضَعِيفًا أَوْ لَا يَسْتَطِيعُ أَنْ يُمِلَّ هُوَ فَلْيُمْلِلْ وَلِيُّهُ بِالْعَدْلِ وَاسْتَشْهِدُوا شَهِيدَيْنِ مِنْ رِجَالِكُمْ فَإِنْ لَمْ يَكُونَا رَجُلَيْنِ فَرَجُلٌ وَامْرَأَتَانِ مِمَّنْ تَرْضَوْنَ مِنَ الشُّهَدَاءِ أَنْ تَضِلَّ إِحْدَاهُمَا فَتُذَكِّرَ إِحْدَاهُمَا الْأُخْرَى وَلَا يَأْبَ الشُّهَدَاءُ إِذَا مَا دُعُوا وَلَا تَسْأَمُوا أَنْ تَكْتُبُوهُ صَغِيرًا أَوْ كَبِيرًا إِلَى أَجَلِهِ ذَلِكُمْ أَقْسَطُ عِنْدَ اللهِ وَأَقْوَمُ لِلشَّهَادَةِ وَأَدْنَى أَلَّا تَرْتَابُوا إِلَّا أَنْ تَكُونَ تِجَارَةً حَاضِرَةً تُدِيرُونَهَا بَيْنَكُمْ فَلَيْسَ عَلَيْكُمْ جُنَاحٌ أَلَّا تَكْتُبُوهَا وَأَشْهِدُوا إِذَا تَبَايَعْتُمْ وَلَا يُضَارَّ كَاتِبٌ وَلَا شَهِيدٌ وَإِنْ تَفْعَلُوا فَإِنَّهُ فُسُوقٌ بِكُمْ وَاتَّقُوا اللهَ وَيُعَلِّمُكُمُ اللهُ وَاللهُ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمٌ
([283]) And if you are on a journey and cannot find anyone to record it, then collateral actually received. And if you are fully confident of one another, then [just] let the one entrusted fulfill his trust. And let him beware of Allah his lord. And do not conceal any testimony. And whoever conceals it, surely his heart is sinful. And Allah is knower of what you do. وَإِنْ كُنْتُمْ عَلَى سَفَرٍ وَلَمْ تَجِدُوا كَاتِبًا فَرِهَانٌ مَقْبُوضَةٌ فَإِنْ أَمِنَ بَعْضُكُمْ بَعْضًا فَلْيُؤَدِّ الَّذِي اؤْتُمِنَ أَمَانَتَهُ وَلْيَتَّقِ اللهَ رَبَّهُ وَلَا تَكْتُمُوا الشَّهَادَةَ وَمَنْ يَكْتُمْهَا فَإِنَّهُ آثِمٌ قَلْبُهُ وَاللهُ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ عَلِيمٌ
([284]) To Allah belongs all that is in the heavens and all that is in the earth. And whether you expose what is within you or you conceal it, Allah will take you to account for it. And he will forgive whoever he wishes and he will punish whoever he wishes and Allah is in complete control of everything. لِلَّهِ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الْأَرْضِ وَإِنْ تُبْدُوا مَا فِي أَنْفُسِكُمْ أَوْ تُخْفُوهُ يُحَاسِبْكُمْ بِهِ اللهُ فَيَغْفِرُ لِمَنْ يَشَاءُ وَيُعَذِّبُ مَنْ يَشَاءُ وَاللهُ عَلَى كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ
([285]) The Messenger believes in what was sent down to him from his lord, as do the believers. All of them believe in Allah, his angels, his books and his messengers. We do not differentiate between any of his messengers. And they say: We hear and we obey. Your forgiveness, O our lord, and unto you is our destination. آمَنَ الرَّسُولُ بِمَا أُنْزِلَ إِلَيْهِ مِنْ رَبِّهِ وَالْمُؤْمِنُونَ كُلٌّ آمَنَ بِاللَّهِ وَمَلَائِكَتِهِ وَكُتُبِهِ وَرُسُلِهِ لَا نُفَرِّقُ بَيْنَ أَحَدٍ مِنْ رُسُلِهِ وَقَالُوا سَمِعْنَا وَأَطَعْنَا غُفْرَانَكَ رَبَّنَا وَإِلَيْكَ الْمَصِيرُ
([286]) Allah does not burden any person except according to their ability. For each is what they earned and against each is what they brought upon themselves. Our lord! Do not hold us responsible if we forget or make a mistake. Our lord! And do not put a burden upon us as you put upon those before us. Our lord! And do not put upon us that which we have no power to fulfill. And pardon us, forgive us and have mercy on us. You are our master, so aid us against the people who reject. لَا يُكَلِّفُ اللهُ نَفْسًا إِلَّا وُسْعَهَا لَهَا مَا كَسَبَتْ وَعَلَيْهَا مَا اكْتَسَبَتْ رَبَّنَا لَا تُؤَاخِذْنَا إِنْ نَسِينَا أَوْ أَخْطَأْنَا رَبَّنَا وَلَا تَحْمِلْ عَلَيْنَا إِصْرًا كَمَا حَمَلْتَهُ عَلَى الَّذِينَ مِنْ قَبْلِنَا رَبَّنَا وَلَا تُحَمِّلْنَا مَا لَا طَاقَةَ لَنَا بِهِ وَاعْفُ عَنَّا وَاغْفِرْ لَنَا وَارْحَمْنَا أَنْتَ مَوْلَانَا فَانْصُرْنَا عَلَى الْقَوْمِ الْكَافِرِينَ

Transliteration System

Arabic Character Symbol Example Arabic Character Symbol Example
ء `Ishâ’ غ gh Maghrib
أ a Amen ف f Faith/fatwa
ب b Bad/Bilâl ق q Qur’ân
ت t Tap/Tasmiyah ك k Kill/Ka`ba
ث th Think/Thaqîf ل l Qiblah
ج j Jew/Janâbah م m Man/Marwah
ح h Muhammad ن n Noah/Nasî’ah
خ kh Al-Bukhârî هـ h Has/Hilâl
د d Day/Diyah ة h/t Zakâh/Zakâtul-Fitr
ذ dh Dhul-Hijjah و w Way/Witr
ر r Far/Ribâ ي y Yard/Talbiyah
ز z Zero/Zayd ــَ a Fadl
س s Say/Sura ــِ i Fiqh
ش sh Show/`Ishâ’ ــُ u Sunnah
ص s `Asr آ â Âdam/Siwâk
ض d Ifâdah ـوُ û Dâwûd
ط t Tawâf ـِي î Hadîth/Hanafî
ظ z Zuhr ـوَ aw `Awrah
ع ` Rak`ah أي ay Ayman

Contents

Preface 5

Introduction 7

Surah Al-Fâtihah (The Opening) 19

Surah Al-Baqarah (The Cow) 23

Transliteration System 181

Contents 183

  1. These are three letters from the Arabic alphabet. They do not form any word or abbreviation, and do not have any known meaning. Their meaning is part of what Allah has chosen to keep to himself. Scholars of the Qur’ân have speculated about the possible significance of these letters which occur at the beginning of a number of chapters of the Qur’ân. Among other things, they are a reflection of the miraculous nature of Allah’s book, in essence saying: “These are letters from your language and this book is made up entirely of such letters, and yet the challenge to produce anything like the Qur’ân remains unmet until today.” This is a challenge which has been made often in the Qur’ân. For one example of such a challenge, see verse 23 in this chapter (Al-Baqarah). Also, see the discussion of this challenge in the introduction to this book.
  2. This is the book containing the verbatim words of Allah without doubt. Those who are vigilant and fastidious and care about finding the truth and living according to it are the ones who derive guidance from Allah’s words. From this book they acquire knowledge which brings about positive change and are led to righteous actions which benefit them and others in this life and secure their reward in the hereafter.
  3. Who are these vigilant ones who are capable of getting benefit from Allah’s words? They are those whose minds can comprehend and encompass realities beyond the sensory world by their clear signs. But many are incapable of this. See Ar-Rum: 6-7 and An-Najm: 27-30. These realities cannot be grasped by sensory perception or by the unassisted human mind no matter how great an effort is made to do so. The only source of such knowledge is divine communication (“revelation”) which was given to all of the prophets and messengers. Of all these messages, we now have only the final message intact and in its original form. It is found in this Qur’ân and the authentic teachings of Allah’s final messenger (known as hadîth). Due to their belief and their being guided by the divine communication, the vigilant ones referred to in this verse maintain the prayers in their prescribed times as given to Muhammad by Allah and they give from their wealth which they understand to be Allah’s grant of only temporary custody (and not due to their own efforts) in order to help others and further the cause of truth.
  4. They are those who believe in what was sent down to you (Muhammad), which means this Qur’ân and all of the other teachings, explanations and real-life applications recorded in authenticated narrations (hadîth) from the Prophet which the Messenger dutifully delivered to mankind under Allah’s constant guidance. And they are those who believe in this whole process of divine communication to mankind through all the prophets and messengers. Thus, though the previous communications are no longer available in their original form complete, untainted and unmodified at the hands of men, the believers in this message also believe in the reality of all of the previous messages and also the prophets of Allah to whom the messages were given. They are also certain of the afterlife and that this earthly life is not the final stage of our existence as humans. It is clear that all of Allah’s prophets and messengers taught this and of course the final message given to Muhammad is no exception. This is not merely an intellectual belief or philosophy, but rather a profound conviction in the heart which of necessity manifests itself as sound statements made by the tongue (starting with the verbal profession of faith) and righteous actions performed by the body and mind. This belief is the strongest incentive to do all that is good, eschew all that is evil and hold oneself accountable for all that one does. Those with these attributes live according to a light from their lord and a grant of success from their creator and source of their guidance. They are the successful ones who will attain the good that they seek and escape the evil of that from which they have fled.
  5. Those people who have these attributes are upon guidance from their lord, and they are the successful ones who will attain what they seek.
  6. Those who reject Allah’s message out of arrogance, hatred or transgression will never find faith. Whether you exert every effort to warn them of Allah’s punishment or you just leave them alone, they will remain in darkness and disbelief due to their stubbornness, see: [surahs Al-A’râf (The Battlements): 176 and Al-Baqarah (The Cow): 171].
  7. Because of their stubborn rejection of the truth, even after it had been made clear to them, Allah has not granted them success of ever finding guidance. Theirs will be a severe punishment in the fires of Hell.
  8. Some people bounce back and forth in confusion between the believers and the rejecters. These are the Munâfiqûn (“hypocrites”), the ones who say with their mouths, “We believe in Allah and the last day”. Their outward appearance is that of a believer, but their inner reality is that they are lying and do not believe. Note that although “hypocrite” is the best translation we can find, it does not adequately render the true meaning of the Arabic word. A “hypocrite” in English is anyone who shows externally other than his inner reality or shows one thing to some people and something different to others. In the hadîth this is referred to as “the one with two faces”. But the Arabic word in this verse is more specific. It means the one who makes an external display of belief while his internal reality is rejection. Such hypocrites can be divided into two categories: (I) those who are still aware that they are lying and who are attempting to fool the people, and (II) those whose deception Allah has turned back on them (see, the next verse, verse no. 9). This second group no longer realize their own reality and have come to believe that they are in fact believers, or even among the best of the believers or, as Allah stated, they claim that they are “reformers” – the ones here to “save” or “reform” Islam and Muslims!
  9. They fool themselves into thinking that they have succeeded in deceiving the believers, and even deceiving Allah, through their display of belief while hiding its opposite. In the end they only deceive themselves, but because of their extreme ignorance and the corruption of their hearts they become completely unaware of their predicament. Allah comes between them and their own hearts – in other words, he takes away their self-awareness (See: Al-Anfâl (The Spoils): 23-24] and they become deluded. This means that when this happens, they may not even be aware of their own disbelief any longer and in fact believe that they are the “reformers” of Islam and not its rejecters, as will be explained in the coming verses.
  10. In their hearts is the disease of doubt and wickedness. So they are tested by their own acts of disobedience, which make their punishment inevitable. Then, Allah afflicts them with even more doubt. They cannot escape the punishment because of the lies and untruths they used to say and their hypocrisy leading to their downward spiral of disobedience, doubt, sin and rejection and finally punishment.
  11. And when they are advised to cease making corruption in the land with their disbelief and disobedience and conspiring against the believers they claim that they are the ones bringing reform. Depending on the “stage” or nature of their hypocrisy, this can either be intentional deception and trickery or they may be in delusion and actually believe what they are claiming. (See note to verse 8, above.)
  12. What they claim and/or believe to be reform is in reality the ultimate corruption, but they have no idea because of their ignorance and their stubbornness which led to Allah turning their deception back on them leading them to become deluded and to lose any awareness of their true reality, as mentioned in previous verses.
  13. And when they are urged to believe as the close companions of the Prophet believed – i.e. to have complete belief which includes the conviction of the heart, pure utterances of the tongue and righteous actions of the body and heart – they ask, “Should we believe as the simpletons believe, those who do not think much and have little intelligence?” But Allah responds that true foolishness and weakness of intelligence is the very condition they are in. They fail to realize that the path they have chosen is in fact the path of going astray and leads to grievous loss and failure.
  14. When in the presence of the believers, they claim to believe as they do. But, when alone with each other and with their disbelieving peers, they reassure them that they are still firm upon disbelief and were only making a mockery of the believers. The word (Shayâtînîhim) translated as “their evil ones” or “disbelieving peers” means “devils” or rebellious, obstinate or evil ones who seek to deceive and lead others away from truth and guidance. The devil most referred to, Iblîs, is not human but from another race of beings called the jinn. However, the word can apply to those of this description, whether they are human or jinn. See verses:{And thus we have made for every prophet an enemy – devils from mankind and from the jinn. They communicate attractive but deceitful words to each other. Had your lord so willed, they would not have done it. So leave them and the falsehood they invent.}[Al-An`âm (The Cattle): 112-113]
  15. Because of their pretense when they are around the believers and their mockery of them behind their backs, Allah makes a mockery of them. He gives them slack and time to sink deeper into confusion and to go more astray. In the end, he will repay them for their inequities and for their mockery of his message and the believers who follow it.
  16. These hypocrites – who feigned belief in public, masking the disbelief in their hearts – sold themselves out in a losing transaction. They clung to disbelief and abandoned belief. They gained nothing and lost the possibility of being guided – which is the greatest loss of all.
  17. This is an analogy of those who apparently believed in the message brought by Muhammad but then disbelieved. They floundered about in darkness and going astray until they lost even self-awareness. At that point, there is no hope of them ever getting out of this state. Their state is compared to a group of people who are outside on a dark night. One of them built a large fire to provide heat and light. However, when the fire was burning nicely, it went out completely, leaving the group in darkness. The exact phrase used is that Allah “took away their light”. This could mean that the fire went out. Or, it could mean that it no longer provided them with light. Or, it could mean that they could no longer get light from the fire or benefit from the light of the fire. In any case, they were not able to see anything and were unable to find the path or any way out of their predicament.
  18. These are the ones who are deaf to hearing the truth and comprehending it. They are mute, so they cannot speak words of truth. They are blind, so they cannot see the light of truth. Thus, they are unable to return to the guidance which they have abandoned and rejected and which they replaced with deviation and evil. The light has gone out completely, and will not re-kindle itself. They are denied its benefit.
  19. There is another group among the Munâfiqûn (“hypocrites”) who comprehend and see the truth at times, but at other times are filled with doubt and lose the light of guidance. The analogy of this second group is like a group travelling across the land. Suddenly a huge rainstorm is upon them. This rainstorm has layers of darkness, loud thunder crashes and blinding lightning flashes. The thunder is so horrendous that they put their fingers in their ears and cower in fear for their lives.
  20. Although the lightning nearly blinds them, it does provide light for them to see their way and move forward. But when it is not there, they cannot see, so they are stuck where they are and cannot move forward. And if Allah willed, he could take their sight, their hearing and all their senses and leave them helpless and hopeless (like the previous group). But, Allah grants them time and the possibility is still open for them to come to guidance.
  21. Allah addresses his call to all mankind to worship the only one who created all things (including themselves) and nurtured them with his sustenance and to revere and fear him and not go against the way of life he commands us to live (i.e. living in submission and obedience to Allah). Allah created you from nothing, just as he created those before you so that you may be among the vigilant who are pleased with Allah and with whom Allah is pleased.
  22. Allah is the one who made the earth a livable surface and an environment which supports human life and he made the heavens firm and complete like a well-built building. And, he sent down rain from the clouds and brought forth with it many varieties of fruit and other edible plants for your sustenance. How then could you divert any portion of worship to other than Allah? Even though you are aware that he alone is the creator of all things and that he alone is the provider of all sustenance! Thus clearly Allah is the only one who deserves to be worshipped.
  23. Allah challenges those who do not believe that the Qur’ân is the verbatim words of Allah and is not of human origin or authorship to bring a single chapter comparable to it. Eloquence and sublime language were of extreme importance to the Arabs to whom the Qur’ân first came. They could defeat one another with powerful words and poetry more thoroughly than they could with the sharpest weapon. So they understood this challenge very well. In addition, this challenge has remained unmet until today. Although the shortest “chapter” in the Qur’ân is only three lines! No one has ever been able to author anything even that small that anyone could accept as being equal to the Qur’ân. As part of this challenge, Allah invites the rejecters of his book to solicit whatever helpers they can to attempt to create a single chapter equal to the book of Allah or to bear witness that it has been done.
  24. And if (when) you are unable to meet this challenge (to bring a single chapter equal to the Qur’ân), and in fact you will never be able to meet it, not now or at any point in the future, then guard yourselves from the fire of Hell, which is fueled by human beings and stones. Allah has prepared it as the destination of the rejecters. The only way to protect yourself from this fire is by believing and obeying Allah and his messenger.
  25. Allah commands his Prophet to give glad tidings of abundant good and much happiness to the people who believe and perform righteous actions. In the hereafter they will have amazing gardens with rivers flowing below them. In it are large castles in which they live and trees with ample shade. Every time they are given another type of delicious fruit, they say, “Allah gave us this type before.” This may mean due to its similar appearance to fruit they had in this world, or to fruit they were given previously in Paradise (or both). But, when they taste it, they find that it has a wonderful new sweetness and taste they had never tasted before, even though it resembled that previous fruit in appearance. And all will have the purest of spouses. Their spouses (and themselves) are pure of all unclean things, both physical like waste products and unpleasant smells and also non-physical uncleanness, such as lying and treachery or any kind of bad character. They will be in Paradise forever and will neither die nor ever be made to leave.
  26. Shyness which humans may experience when speaking of certain things will never stop Allah from presenting any analogy which will help his slaves to understand the truth, even if it is by using the tiniest creation like a mosquito or a fly, see [surah Al-Hajj (The Pilgrimage): 73] if it will help people to understand. So, the believer knows and understands Allah’s wisdom in using the tiniest or the greatest thing as an allegory in order to teach us. As for the rejecters, they do not understand Allah’s wisdom, and only ask mockingly, “What did Allah intend by citing this lowly insect as an allegory?” Allah answers them that his intention was to make it a trial – a way to distinguish the believers from the rejecters. Thus, Allah causes many people to deviate from the truth because of their shallow understanding and their mockery, while at the same time allowing it to lead others to increased faith and guidance. The same book has widely different effects depending on the health of the heart receiving it. And Allah never oppresses anyone, ever. He only lets those who have already stopped being obedient to him continue in their path of misguidance.
  27. Allah has taken a covenant from mankind to worship him alone and to obey him. See [surah Al-A’râf: 172]. And, he reiterated that covenant by sending Prophet Muhammad. So those who violate this covenant by cutting family ties and spreading corruption in the land – these are the real losers in this life and the hereafter.
  28. How could you reject the oneness of Allah and his omnipotence in spite of the many clear signs which are in front of you that indicate this truth? He created you from nothing and created the life which he then put into you. Then, he will cause you to die when the time appointed by him is finished. After that, he will bring you back to life for a second time. Finally, you will return to Allah for your account, judgment and recompense.
  29. Allah alone is the one who created for your sake all of the good things on and in the earth from which you take much benefit. Then, he turned to the heavens and fashioned them as seven heavens. Allah is omniscient. His knowledge encompasses everything, everywhere in his creation.
  30. And mention to them, O Messenger, when Allah said to the angels, “I will make a successor on earth.” The fact that Allah referred to mankind here as a “successor” means either 1) another creation after the jinn, who inhabited the earth long before humans, or 2) It means a new species which will succeed each other, generation after generation. They asked Allah to inform them and teach them the wisdom behind creating such a creature which, by its very nature, would spread corruption in the land and spill blood unjustly while they (the angels) only obey Allah at all times. They stated that they exalt Allah as is befitting his majesty and they praise him with all of his attributes of perfection and greatness. But Allah answered them that he knows what they do not know, i.e. the overall wisdom or benefit in creating mankind.
  31. To further clarify the high station of this new human creation, Allah taught Âdam the names of all things. Then, he brought those things in front of the angels and asked them to tell him their names, if they were correct in thinking that they were more appropriate to be successors on the earth than Allah’s new creation (human beings).
  32. When all was clear to the angels, they admitted their lack of knowledge and that they knew nothing except whatever Allah had taught them. And they acknowledged that Allah knows best about the affairs of his creation and is the wisest to make decisions regarding them.
  33. Then Allah ordered Âdam to tell the angels the names of those things which the angels had failed to name. When Adam informed them of all the names, Allah mentioned again to the angels the fact that he alone knows every hidden thing in the heavens and the earth and he knows whatever anyone attempts to hide or they show openly.
  34. After that, Allah ordered the assembly of the angels to prostrate to Âdam as a way of honoring Âdam and of making clear his high station with Allah. Iblîs (Satan) was from the race of the jinn. They were created long before humans and among them are both believers and rejecters. Unlike the angels, the jinn have the ability to choose (they have a free will), as do humans. At that time Iblîs was a believer and the best worshipper of Allah among his people, the jinn. He was such a devoted worshipper of Allah that Allah had admitted him to the assembly of the angels, where he joined them in worshipping him, an opportunity no other being had been granted. Thus, he was “among” the angels, but he is not an angel and never was an angel. However, the creation of Âdam was his downfall. He was overcome with envy and hatred toward Âdam. When Allah ordered the angelic assembly to prostrate before Âdam, all the angels obeyed immediately and did as they were told. Iblîs, on the other hand, refused Allah’s order. He became disobedient to Allah and a rejecter and thus began the enmity of Iblîs and his companions towards Âdam and his progeny.
  35. Allah told Adam to dwell with his spouse, Hawwâ’ (Eve), in the garden and to enjoy its fruits, however and wherever they wished. But, he gave them one and only one order (law): that they must not come near one particular tree or eat of its fruit. He informed them that if they did so, they would be among the transgressors who violate the boundaries established by their creator.
  36. But the devil caused them to err due to his insinuations and beguiling. This transgression of theirs caused them to be removed from the wonderful state they had been in and to be expelled from the garden. This part of the verse that talks about this transgression is in the “dual” form, clearly indicating that it is talking about two people, i.e. Âdam and Hawwâ’, who both transgressed. Then Allah said to them: “Go down, enemies to one another.” This part of the verse is in the plural form, which refers to more than two in Arabic, because two of anything is written in another form – the “dual” form. So, this refers to a three way enmity; between Âdam, Hawwâ’ and Shaytân. Finally, Allah tells them that they will have a place to dwell and have sustenance “up to a time”. In other words, until the appointed time of their death arrives.
  37. After that, Allah inspired Adam with some words with which he could repent and turn back to Allah, which Adam then accepted and repeated to repent to Allah with them. These words are reported in [surah Al-A’râf: 23], the meaning of which is: {They said: “Our lord! We have wronged ourselves, and if you do not forgive us and have mercy upon us, we will surely be among those who lose.}
  38. Allah told all of them to go down from the garden to live on the earth and informed them that there would come to them and their descendants that in which there is guidance to the truth. So, when this communication arrives, whoever accepts it and lives according to it will neither be fearful of what will face them in the hereafter nor grieve over what they will leave behind in this world.
  39. Those who reject Allah’s signs and fail to comprehend and benefit from them – both those signs which are recited (the verses of his communication to mankind) and the other signs of his oneness that are found in his creation and within themselves – will be bound to the fire. They will be in it forever and will never leave it.
  40. In this verse, Allah addresses the descendants of Isrâ’îl. Isrâ’îl’s name was also Ya`qûb (Jacob). He was a son of Ishâq (Isaac), who was one of the sons of Ibrâhîm (Abraham). Ismâ’îl, from whom the Arabs are descended, was Ishâq’s brother. Ya`qûb (or Isrâ’îl) who was the son of Ishâq and grandson of Ibrâhîm, (and thus the nephew of Ismâ’îl) had 12 sons. From these 12 arose the 12 tribes of the Jews. So when Allah addresses the “Children of Isrâ’îl”, these 12 tribes are those who are being referred to. This makes the Arabs, the descendants of Ismâ`îl (Ismael), something like the cousins of the Jews, so to speak. The Jews are descendants of the 12 children of the nephew of Ismail, from whom the Arabs descended and all of them are in the family of Ibrahim. The progeny of Ya`qûb had many prophets and messengers that were raised among them by Allah, all teaching them the oneness of Allah and the necessity of worshipping Allah alone. Allah reminds them in this verse of this fact, and of his many other favors that he bestowed upon them, and orders them to keep their covenant with him that he may keep his promise to them. Their covenant is to believe in all of his books (messages) and all of his messengers and to follow his laws and orders. Allah promises them that if they keep this covenant of theirs he will keep his promise to them of giving them his mercy and allowing them to achieve success in this life and Paradise in the hereafter. Allah mentions that all prophets undertook a covenant that all future prophets sent by Allah (who of course had the same message of monotheism) must be believed in and supported. There is a reference to this covenant in [surah (Âl `Imrân (The Household of `Imrân): 81]. This process was concluded with Allah’s final prophet, Prophet Muhammad, after whom there will be no more prophets or messengers. Finally, Allah reminds them to fear and revere him alone.
  41. Allah continues to address the Children of Isrâ’îl, reminding them that according to their prior covenant they must now believe in the divine communication sent to Muhammad – Allah’s final prophet and messenger – which agrees with all that is correct in their own book, i.e., the Torah. Allah warns them not to be the first group from the previous religions to reject his final prophet and thereby reject Allah, and not to sell themselves out for the temporary things of this life by rejecting what they know to be truth. And finally Allah urges them to be vigilant meaning to be conscientious and diligent in sticking to obedience to Allah and in staying away from being disobedient to him.
  42. Allah further says to the Children of Isrâ’îl: “Do not mix the truth which has been made clear to you with the falsehood which you yourselves concocted and fear Allah with regard to concealing the clear truth you possess in your books regarding the description of Allah’s final messenger, Muhammad.”
  43. And (O Children of Isrâ’îl) enter into a state of true belief and submission to Allah by establishing the prayer as explained by Allah to his final messenger Muhammad and by paying the obligatory Zakâh (an annual amount collected from wealth beyond one’s basic needs) as legislated by Allah through his final messenger Muhammad in his final law for mankind. Only by so doing will you be among the dutiful slaves of Allah, who bow down before him.
  44. How wicked is your condition and the condition of your scholars and leaders when you command the people to do what is right but neglect yourselves and don’t hold yourselves to the same code of conduct – which is submission to Allah, i.e., Islam. And you do this while you are the ones who recite the Torah in which there is a clear description of Allah’s final messenger to mankind, Muhammad, and also Allah’s order to believe in him and support him. Will you not use the intellect which Allah has given you?
  45. And seek aid and support in all matters through patience, forbearance and perseverance in all its forms as well as through prayer. And this is something difficult except for those who are focused, conscious and humble.
  46. They are those who fear Allah and yearn for his acceptance and reward. They are certain of their coming meeting with Allah after their death. They are certain that they will return to Allah to have their deeds which they performed in this worldly realm accounted and to be recompensed fully according to such deeds.
  47. Allah tells the Children of Isrâ’îl to remember his great favor upon them and to be grateful to Allah for such favor and act accordingly. Allah sent many messengers to them and favored them with this over the other nations of those times. And they received divine communications (books) such as the Torah given to Mûsâ (Moses) and the Injîl, the name of the original book given to `Îsâ (Jesus).
  48. And Allah tells them to beware of a day when no one can help anyone else and no intercession will be accepted for any who rejected any of Allah’s messages. Being from a particular bloodline will mean nothing on that day. No amount of wealth can spare them from the punishment, even if the wealth encompassed everything in the world. And no one will be able to come to their aid or save them from the punishment that awaits them.
  49. Allah reminds the Children of Isrâ’îl of his favor upon them when he rescued them from the clutches of Pharaoh and his people. Pharaoh and his people subjected them to the worst form of abuse. They used to slaughter their male children and keep the women alive to become slaves. In this was a great test for the Children of Isrâ’îl. And saving you from this was a huge favor which Allah bestowed upon you for which you should be eternally grateful down through all your generations.
  50. Allah also reminds the Children of Isrâ’îl of his great favor upon them when he provided for them a dry path across the sea in order to escape from Pharaoh and his forces. Then, when the latter, their enemy, attempted to cross the sea in the same way, they perished in the water.
  51. Allah blessed the Children of Isrâ’îl with yet another blessing, a divine communication (book), the Torah. He took Mûsâ for forty days to communicate the book to him. In spite of this great favor, the Children of Isrâ’îl used this short period of Mûsâ’s absence to create a statue of a calf and redirect their worship to it. They did this in spite of Hârûn (Mûsâ’s brother) reminding them of Allah’s oneness and that they should not turn to idol worship – the most heinous and grievous form of disbelief in Allah and rejection of his message.
  52. Even this blatant idol-worship was forgiven by Allah after Mûsâ returned and the Children of Isrâ’îl repented for what they had done. Allah forgave them so that they may be thankful and show gratitude after that.
  53. Allah also reminds the Children of Isrâ’îl of his favor upon them when he gave them, through Mûsâ, the book and the criterion – the criterion which distinguishes truth from falsehood and right from wrong in order that they might be guided to all that is right.
  54. And another great favor from Allah upon the Children of Isrâ’îl was when Mûsâ reprimanded them because of their horrible deed of worshipping the calf, and informed them that Allah offered them a way of repentance wherein some of them had to kill others among them. For Allah to accept their repentance in this way was a great mercy because otherwise the consequences of worshipping others with Allah is to spend eternity in the hellfire.
  55. Allah reminds the Children of Isrâ’îl of their arrogance when they told Mûsâ that they would not believe him until they saw Allah with their own eyes. Whereupon Allah sent a fire from the sky and took their lives.
  56. Then Allah brought them back to life after they had died from the lightning. The death by lightning was a punishment for their arrogance toward Allah, and then they were brought back to life in order to complete their designated term, and that they may change their ways and become thankful.
  57. Allah gave the Children of Isrâ’îl many favors while they were wandering about in the land. He caused the clouds to hover over them and provide them with shade. And Allah sent down to them “manna”, which is something sweet like honey, sublimely nutritious and it appears as dew each and every morning. And he also sent down to them “salwa” which is an edible bird similar to quail. So Allah invited them to partake of his wonderful sustenance and not to violate his teachings and commit evil actions. But, they did not obey. However, it was not Allah who they wronged with their ingratitude toward his favors and generosity, but rather they only wronged themselves because the negative consequences of doing wrong eventually fall back on its perpetrators; Allah has no need for our obedience but we are in absolute need of his mercy and forgiveness.
  58. Allah recounts another of his favors upon the Children of Isrâ’îl: He invited them to enter back into Jerusalem, where they could partake of any of its bounties as they wished. The only condition was that they were ordered to enter the gate in a bowing position and to utter a certain word while passing through it. The word which Allah had commanded the Children of Isrâ’îl to say as they entered the gate bowing means “dropped” or “pardoned” and in this context, it was a word of repentance to Allah and a way of asking that one’s sins be dropped and so be forgiven. Some of them mocked this divine order by saying a different word instead. The similar-sounding word they said means “wheat” and so they changed a solemn word of repentance to the mentioning of food instead, mocking Allah’s commandment. As for the command to pass through the gate in a bowing position (literally: in prostration), they slid through on their backsides, once again mocking Allah’s commands.
  59. Yes, the evildoers among the Children of Isrâ’îl changed Allah’s orders by way of mockery. They changed a word of repentance to the word “wheat”, and they changed the position of humility, i.e. bowing, to one of mockery, scooting on their backsides. Therefore, because of their disobedience and arrogance, Allah sent down a punishment upon the wrongdoers.
  60. When the Children of Isrâ’îl were wandering in the desert, they became thirsty. Mûsâ beseeched Allah to grant them relief from thirst. So Allah commanded Mûsâ to strike a large stone with his staff. He did so, and twelve springs of water gushed forth from the rock. Each of the 12 tribes of Isrâ’îl immediately knew which spring was for them and they all had plenty to drink. According to some narrations, they took this rock with them as they continued to move around and every time they stopped and put it down it again produced abundant water from the 12 springs. So, Allah reminds them of this favor as well and commands them to partake (drink) from the bounties Allah provides for them, but refrain from committing corruption and evil in the land.
  61. In spite of the delicious, nutritious and easily acquired food which Allah provided the Children of Isrâ’îl, they failed to show gratitude to Allah. Instead, they complained to Mûsâ of being bored with eating the same foods day after day. They asked Mûsâ to beseech Allah for all the mundane foods they were used to before. Mûsâ was astonished by this and asked them if they were really asking for these lowly foodstuffs in preference to the wonderful sustenance which Allah had chosen for them and granted them without any effort on their part. So he then told them that if that was what they wanted, they could go into any town or village and they would find those things in the markets and in the fields. When they did so, it became clear to them that they had consistently put their own choices ahead of what Allah had chosen for them and that they had preferred their own desires to the many things Allah had granted them. So, they became among the wretched and became spiritually empty. They left those towns and returned having brought upon themselves Allah’s anger because of their turning away from Allah’s prescribed way of life, as well as their rejection of Allah’s signs, their ingratitude for his bounties and their murder of the prophets in sin and transgression. All of this was because of their disobedience and their transgression of all boundaries.
  62. In this verse, Allah mentions the following groups: 1) the believers at the time of the communication of the Qur’ân who believed in Allah and all of his messengers and implemented his law (Sharî’ah), meaning the Muslims who accepted the message given to Muhammad, and 2) those from previous nations who lived before the prophethood of Muhammad – who received divine communication via Allah’s messengers in the past such as the Jews, the Christians and also the Sabians. The Sabians were a group who believed in Allah but did not follow any specific religion or teaching or according to some they were an offshoot of Christianity. All of these groups, as long as they truly believed in Allah and in the day of reckoning and lived and acted in a way pleasing to Allah and did not reject any of Allah’s messengers, will have their reward firmly guaranteed by Allah. There is neither fear upon them regarding the coming day of reckoning nor any grief for anything they leave behind in this world. However, once Allah commissioned Muhammad as his final messenger and Muhammad delivered Allah’s final message to all mankind, Allah no longer accepts any practice or belief from anyone unless it is found in his final message to mankind, i.e. Islam. This then is the required belief in Allah all of Allah’s messengers, the very belief taught by all of Allah’s messengers through the ages. For example, when Mûsâ was sent to the Children of Isra’il, all of them were required to believe in his message. It would not have been acceptable at that time for one of them to claim that they were following the teachings of Ibrâhim and had no need for the message of Mûsâ. Likewise, when Isa was subsequently sent to the same people, it would not be accepted from any of them to claim that they were continuing to follow the message given to Mûsâ and had no need for this new messenger Allah had sent to them. Finally once Muhammad, Allah’s final messenger to mankind, was sent to all the peoples of the world, the only way to be a believer in any of Allah’s messengers from that point forward was to believe in all of Allah’s messengers up to and including his final messenger. Since subsequent messages supersede prior ones, the only way to believe in Allah and his messengers is to believe in and follow his final message given to us through Muhammad.
  63. Allah reminds the Children of Isrâ’îl of the solemn and serious covenant he took from them to believe in Allah and direct all worship solely to him. He lifted the mountain of Tûr up over their heads and ordered them to earnestly hold fast to the divine book and to learn and remember everything in it, and threatened that he would drop this mountain on top of them if they did not follow this way. He ordered them to abide by and not neglect anything in the Torah in both word and deed in order to remain vigilant and conscious of Allah and fearful of his displeasure and his punishment.
  64. Allah continues to address the Children of Isrâ’îl: Even after this covenant and the threat of the mountain suspended over your heads, you disobeyed once again. And, were it not for the immense generosity and mercy of Allah and his forgiving you and overlooking your transgressions, you would surely be among those who lose out in this world and the hereafter.
  65. Allah reminds the Jews that they know well about their predecessors who transgressed in the laws of the Sabbath. They had been ordered not to fish on the Sabbath day, but they used a legal trick to violate this law by placing their nets and traps in the water on Friday and then collecting their catch on Sunday. When they did this, Allah transformed them into monkeys and pigs as a punishment.
  66. So, Allah made this village an example to the people of its time – those in nearby areas who heard about their trickery to acquire what is forbidden – and a warning to any who contemplate such sins after them as well as an encouragement to the righteous, who had abstained from fishing on Saturday (the Sabbath) as Allah had ordered them, so they may realize that they are upon the correct way and to remain steadfast on it.
  67. Next, Allah reminds the Jews of the contentiousness and disrespect of their ancestors toward Mûsâ and toward Allah’s commands. Mûsâ communicated to them that Allah had ordered them to sacrifice a cow. They asked Mûsâ if this was some kind of joke. Therefore, Mûsâ sought refuge in Allah from the foolishness of his people.
  68. Then, they cynically asked Mûsâ to go back to Allah for an explanation of which cow they should sacrifice and to give them its description. Mûsâ answered that Allah said that it is neither very old nor very young, but between the two ages, and that they should rush to obey Allah and do what he had ordered them.
  69. But they continued, and asked Mûsâ to go back to Allah and ask what color the cow should be. Mûsâ now replied that Allah said it should be a bright yellow cow, one whose color is so beautiful that it pleases anyone who looks upon her.
  70. They even continued after that and insisted that Mûsâ obtain more details from Allah about the attributes of this cow. Notice that their aim was to only put things off, not to genuinely want to fulfill Allah’s command, but they ended up only making things harder for themselves instead. After the first order, almost any cow would have sufficed. The more they asked, the more restrictions were added. They even said here sarcastically, {“The cows all look the same to us”}. Allah only asked them to sacrifice a cow, not any particular one. It is reported that by the time they had finished questioning Mûsâ, there remained only one cow in the entire land which had all the required characteristics. With this, their last question, they stated that once you give this information, {“If Allah so wills, we will be guided”}, which on the surface appears to mean that they will be directed to the “correct” cow which Allah wants them to sacrifice, but there is also an element of sarcasm here since the same word means to be guided to the right way or the correct path. In other words, it is like saying that they needed to ask all these questions of Mûsâ in order to obtain the “correct” guidance.
  71. Finally, Mûsâ delivered the last restriction on Allah’s order to sacrifice a cow. He added that it must have never been put to work plowing the ground or providing irrigation (i.e. never yoked), and that it must be perfect and completely blemish-free. Unbelievably, they then said to Mûsâ, {“Now, you have brought us the truth”}. Finally, they sacrificed the cow as they had been ordered – but reluctantly.
  72. This verse is actually a continuation of the same story. Allah reminds them of the murder which occurred and about which they disagreed, everyone accusing someone else of being the killer. But Allah would reveal that which they were hiding.
  73. Allah then explains how he ordered them to strike the corpse with part of the sacrificed cow. When they did this, Allah brought the murder victim back to life momentarily – long enough for him to disclose the identity of his killer. In this way, Allah showed them how he could return the dead to life just as he will do on the day of resurrection. He showed them these miraculous occurrences that point to his absolute power so that they might use their minds, think and so desist from disobedience and rebelliousness.
  74. Even these miraculous occurrences and clear signs of the omnipotence of Allah did not penetrate the hearts of many of them, which only became harder and more obstinate after that. They became as hard as rock. No, we should be fair to rocks and say their hearts became harder than stone. Some stones allow water to come forth resulting in flowing rivers. Others split making openings through which springs or geysers flow. And some of them fall down from a high place in fear of Allah. But Allah is not unmindful of any single thing you do (or do not do). This may also be a reminder to the Children of Isrâ’îl of Allah’s previous favor upon them when he miraculously made water spring forth from a rock when they were wandering in the desert and in need of water. See verse 60 of this chapter.
  75. Once the believers became informed about the realities of the hereafter and what is at stake, their desire was boundless to save as many as they could from Allah’s wrath and punishment. It is not possible for a believer to not desire that every human be guided to that which will save them from such a punishment, even their bitterest enemy. But, it was not Allah’s decision [see, surah Yûnus (Jonah): 99-100] that everyone would believe and save themselves from the fire. In this verse, Allah reminds the believers of this reality. He, the Almighty, also reminds them about the Jews in particular. Some Jews were blessed with guidance and became believers during the time of Prophet Muhammad by Allah’s grace, but many did not. So, Allah reminds the believers by asking them, “Do you still maintain hope of the Jews believing en masse?” This, even though their scholars used to hear the words of Allah from the Torah but then proceed to distort and change them from their correct meaning to whatever they desired, even after they had understood it well? They did so being fully aware that they were changing and concealing the actual speech of the creator of everything and intentionally lying about it.
  76. Among the Jews, too, there were hypocrites (see footnote to verse 8 for details on this term) who feigned belief in public but concealed disbelief within themselves. In their enthusiasm to show the believers that they believed as well, some of them mentioned to the Muslims that yes, they believe in the prophet who was foretold in their book, the Torah. The books in their possession provided ample detail for them to know that Muhammad was indeed the final prophet. We also know this because those Jews who believed and became Muslim informed us about it. Anyway, when these over-enthusiastic ones were alone with their fellow Jews or hypocrites, they were rebuked by others for exposing the fact that Muhammad was foretold in their books (therefore making it clear that they knew he was Allah’s messenger and yet opposed him), questioning why they would give Muhammad and those with him such a strong argument against them before Allah. By mentioning that this “gives” Muhammad a strong argument to use before Allah shows that they have a very shallow understanding of the reality of standing before the one who knows all, the open, the secret and what is even more hidden than the secret, on the day of reckoning!
  77. It is as if they have lost all comprehension of the omniscience of Allah and of the fact that he knows fully all that they reveal and all that they attempt to conceal as well as everything they do or do not do.
  78. These statements of what the Jews “knew” from their book apply to the learned and the scholars among them. Many others were illiterate and poorly informed of what was in their own book which they purported to follow. They really knew very little about what was actually in the Torah, especially the prediction of the coming of the final prophet and the accurate description of his attributes which would lead them to understand the truth and save themselves. Rather, they only knew hearsay and whatever mixture of lies and truth their learned ones chose to give them, or what they heard from each other by way of stories and traditions which they had developed over time.
  79. Allah’s books are Allah’s books and are his verbatim words. They were given to his prophets and received by the believers around them. They were not authored by any person. Books which were written by people are not Allah’s words nor do they have anything to do with divine communication (“revelation”), even if they mention some of what was in the original communication or some alleged quotes or stories from or about the messenger who brought the original. Allah here invokes the harshest threat of utter destruction upon any who write a book with their own hands and then claim that it is from Allah. Of course, nothing written by men can be anything like what Allah has communicated to his messengers. It will of necessity reflect their human weaknesses, biases, prejudices and ulterior motives, but this is not the case with the words of Allah. Allah mentions the most likely reason for such an act: that this crime of forgery and false attribution is committed for some material gain, power over others or advantage in this life. So, utter destruction be upon those who compose texts and then claim that they are from Allah because of what they have actually done and utter destruction upon them for the worldly gain they obtained by doing that.
  80. The Jews claimed that, in any case, they would not be in the punishment of the fire for more than a few days. Allah instructs his messenger to ask them, “Do you have a promise from Allah in this regard? For Allah never breaks any promise.” Or, is it (as indeed it is) that you falsely attribute to Allah that of which you have no knowledge. In this verse there is a critical lesson for every believer. Allah has informed us in his final communication given to Muhammad that anyone who believes in the oneness of Allah in his heart will not stay in the hellfire forever, even though those whose evil outweighs their good will initially enter it. Any Muslim who falls into taking sin lightly based on this truth falls into the same thing the Children of Isrâ’îl fell into before us. But how do you know that your monotheism is actually real, complete and correct? What makes you sure that when you begin taking sin lightly that this will not lead you to complete disbelief and eternity in the punishment of the fire? Most of all, we know that the fire of Hell is more severe, by orders of magnitude than any fire we know in this world. The punishment is beyond anything we can imagine. We have also been told that a “single day” in hellfire is like one thousand years of time as we know it. Can anyone make light of even a single “day” in Allah’s punishment? Allah does not tell us about nations who came before us and their misdeeds so that we can point a finger at them. Rather, he tells us these things so we can apply the lessons to ourselves and not repeat the errors and pitfalls of our fellow humans who received a messages from Allah before us.
  81. On the contrary, Allah’s decision is final, constant and unchanging: whoever continues committing sins until such persistence in sinning drags them into disbelief and their sins overwhelm them from every direction, those indeed are the disbelievers, the rejecters and the polytheists and they are the ones who are bound to the fire and will be in it forever without end.
  82. And, Allah’s decision is also final, constant and unchanging regarding the other group. Those who truly and sincerely believe in Allah and all of his messengers and then act in accordance with the law (Sharî`ah) which Allah communicated to those messengers, these will be granted Paradise without limit and will be allowed to stay therein for eternity, without end.
  83. Allah reminds us of the solemn covenant he took from the Children of Isrâ’îl. It included that they would direct no act of worship to other than Allah in any way, shape or form. It also included that they would be good and kind to their parents, their relatives and orphans. They had to also extend kindness to the needy, those who do not possess that which is sufficient for their needs, and speak well to everybody, choosing the best words and with the best manners. They had to also perform the prayer as they had been instructed to do and give the Zakâh (compulsory annual amount paid from one’s wealth) as they had been ordered to do. Unfortunately, most of them turned away, broke their solemn covenant with Allah and continued in this state of rebellion.
  84. Allah reminds the Children of Isrâ’îl of the solemn covenant he had with them in the Torah, i.e. that they would not kill one another nor expel one another from their homes. He reminds them that they acknowledged and accepted the obligation of this covenant.
  85. Then, in spite of their acknowledged covenant, they fell into fighting and killing one another and expelling one another from their homes. They would even conspire with their mutual enemy against one another. Then, if these same people with whom they had fought came to them in the hands of their enemy as captives, suddenly they wanted to boast that they follow the laws of the Torah by ransoming them from captivity. Did they forget that fighting them (which led to their captivity) and conspiring with their mutual enemy to do so was forbidden in the first place? So, now you wish to “follow” the laws of the Torah? It is a truly despicable deed to believe in (i.e., obey) some of the divine message but disbelieve in other parts of it. There is no punishment fitting for such an act other than humiliation and disgrace in this life. Then, in the hereafter, Allah will send them to the worst punishment of the fire. Allah is not in the least unmindful of anything you do. For more about the concept of believing in some of the book but rejecting some or claiming to believe in Allah but rejecting what his messengers have brought – and that it is in fact the ultimate form or “epitome” of disbelief and rejection – see [surah An-Nisâ’ (Women):150-151].
  86. These people are those who sell out the truth for some worldly gain, they will find that their punishment will never be decreased and there will be no one to come to their aid.
  87. Allah sent Mûsâ to the Children of Isrâ’îl with the divine laws and Allah’s prescription of what is right and wrong and how to live and act to come closer to Allah and reach success in this life and the hereafter. Then, he made a number of prophets follow Mûsâ from among themselves, whom he sent to the Children of Isrâ’îl. And among those Allah sent `Îsâ the son of Maryam with clear signs which included physical miracles. Here, Allah states that he assisted `Îsâ with Rûhul-Qudus. Literally, it means the spirit of purity, the purified soul, or the sanctified spirit and in fact it could be translated as the “holy spirit”. The reference is to the angel Jibrîl. Jibrîl is the angel of divine communication (“revelation”) who brought Allah’s message to all of Allah’s prophets and messengers. He is referred to in the Qur’ân by his name, as well as the “sanctified spirit” and as the “trustworthy spirit” both in relation to `Îsâ as well as to Muhammad. This is because being the angel charged with divine communication to mankind, he brought Allah’s message or book to both `Îsâ and Muhammad as well as all other prophets and messengers. The Christian concept of the “holy spirit” was likely a distortion of this name for the angel of divine communication which led to the innovated belief in Christianity called the “holy spirit” as being one part of a three-part deity, or as one who brought “inspiration” to the writers of the gospels decades after `Îsâ, so the claim could then be made that these writings were “from Allah”, in spite of the absence of any direct connection to Isa the son of Maryam and in spite of their known authorship by others. This “trinity” is something which represents a distinct departure from monotheism and is at odds with all that we know about divine messages and prophets before `Îsâ,, as well as the final message given to Muhammad after `Îsâ (peace be upon them), which we still have intact in its original form today.
  88. The Children of Isrâ’îl said to Muhammad that their minds (literally: hearts, but this word is used in Arabic to mean the center of thought, will and decision which in English is usually expressed as “mind”) are closed or “covered”, meaning that they are not open to anything he says, they cannot understand it and it is not getting through to them. Allah stated that it is not as they have said. Rather, their hearts/minds are cursed by Allah, their fate is sealed and they are cast far away from Allah’s mercy because of their rejection (i.e. disbelief) and their obstinance. They have very little actual faith – too little to be of any benefit to them.
  89. Then the Qur’ân came to the Children of Isrâ’îl. It came first to those present with the Prophet Muhammad, but Muhammad was the first and only messenger to be sent to all mankind, and not just to a single nation. So, Allah’s final message was for all it reached, not just for a particular group or nation among mankind. Thus, the Qur’ân was sent to the Children of Isrâ’îl who were in Madînah (Medina) just as it was sent to the Arabs who were native to that area (not to mention the rest of mankind). It was a confirmation of the books that had been sent to them and of which they still had much, although those books had suffered some modification and loss. But the information they still possessed was sufficient for them to know that this was the selfsame monotheism which Mûsâ had brought to their ancestors. Furthermore, their literature contained ample information about the final prophet and his attributes and biography for them to know for certain that Muhammad was indeed that messenger. But unfortunately, most of them rejected the message and the messenger.The Jews were the “People of the Book” vis-à-vis the pagan Arabs. And the Arabs had a certain respect for them because of their literacy and their connection to previous divine books as well as their common ancestor, Ibrâhîm. The Children of Isrâ’îl knew from their books about the final prophet to be sent to mankind, but incorrectly assumed it would be one of them. There were different alliances at different times between the three Jewish tribes in Al-Madînah and the two Arab tribes. When there was a battle between any of the Jewish tribes and one of the Arab tribes, they would sometimes taunt the pagan Arabs by saying that when the final prophet is sent and fights along with them, they would surely defeat the pagan Arabs. But, when the final prophet came with all the attributes they knew (except that they thought he would be from one of their tribes, not from the Arabs), they rejected him. The curse of Allah is upon all those who reject Allah’s prophet and messenger Muhammad and the book, the divine communication, with which Allah sent him.
  90. How despicable is that which the Children of Isrâ’îl chose for themselves. They chose rejection and apostasy over belief because of hatred and envy. Having thought that the final prophet would arise among them – and that they would fight alongside him and defeat the pagan Arabs – they were taken aback and thrown off-guard when the long-awaited final messenger turned out to be Muhammad. Suddenly, the issue became only truth versus falsehood, belief versus rejection, righteousness versus corruption. It was no longer an issue of race, tribe, heritage, history or reputation. After centuries of being the “People of the Book” whom the Arabs had a certain respect for because of their books, their learning and their ancient faith, they suddenly became the rejecters of Allah’s word, the disbelievers. And, they were about to be defeated by others fighting alongside Allah’s final messenger, not them fighting alongside him, ending up on the wrong side of history. So, they ended up with Allah’s wrath being sent upon them for their rejection of his final messenger, Muhammad, on top of the anger which was already upon them for distorting, concealing and changing the Torah that was communicated to them through Mûsâ, and also disputing disingenuously with Allah’s final messenger in an attempt to block others from his message. For any who reject Allah’s final messenger – or any of Allah’s messengers – there awaits terrible punishments which will humiliate them.
  91. When any of the Muslims urged the Children of Isrâ’îl to believe in what Allah had sent down, they said, {“We believe in what was sent to us”}. Implying that they rejected what followed it. But Allah’s final message is the truth, and they still have enough of their original message to know that and to understand that it is from the same source as their original Torah. It teaches the selfsame monotheism, belief in Allah and our need to do good deeds in this life. Thus, if their claim of belief in their original book was true, they would also undoubtedly believe in Allah’s final message. Allah indeed took a covenant from every prophet and messenger through the ages to the effect that true belief required them to believe in and support any and all future messengers from Allah. Allah, the almighty, says:{And when Allah took a covenant from the prophets: For the book and the wisdom which I have given you and then when a messenger comes to you verifying that which you have, you will believe in him and you will support him. He said: Do you accept and take responsibility for this covenant? They said: We accept. He said: So, bear witness and I am with you, a witness.}[Âl `Imrân (The Household of `Imrân): 81]So Allah instructed his messenger to ask them about the true nature of their claimed belief in the divine communications that had been sent to them (even as they were rejecting the subsequent one) whose messengers their ancestors used to persecute and kill!
  92. And what about, O Children of Isrâ’îl, when Mûsâ brought clear miracles and signs showing his truthfulness? These signs included floods and infestations of lice, locusts, frogs and other things that Allah mentioned in the Qur’ân. In spite of all this, and after Allah saved you from persecution by miraculously allowing you to cross the sea on foot (drowning your enemy’s army right behind you), and yet in spite of all this, you took a golden calf as an idol to worship when Mûsâ left you alone for just a few days.
  93. And remember, O Children of Isrâ’îl, when we took a solemn covenant from you that you would accept everything in the Torah that was brought to you by Mûsâ, but you broke your covenant. So, we raised the mountain over your heads and ordered you to take what we had given you in earnest and to listen and obey, and if you did not do so, we would drop the mountain on you. You said: “We hear your words and we disobey your order.” This is because idol worship and the golden calf had inundated your hearts because of your excessive rejection, disobedience and disbelief. Allah orders his prophet to point out that if this is what they call believing in Allah, then it is an ugly belief as it prompts them to do all of these bad acts.
  94. So, if you are indeed the chosen people of Allah and have no need to follow his final messenger as you claim, and are guaranteed success and Paradise in the hereafter, then wish for death right now, if you believe you are really correct. If you truly believe that, why would you not wish for this? Why would anyone who is certain that he is heading to eternal bliss in Paradise want to stay in this world any longer?
  95. But they are fully aware of what they have done. They know that Allah’s justice is absolute and that they all will face Allah with exactly what they have and have not done. There is no “special pass” nor any people or groups who have all been chosen to be rewarded by Allah due to their lineage, regardless of what they do with what Allah has given them. Rather, he rewards and punishes according to one’s belief, righteousness and deeds.
  96. For these reasons, you will find the Children of Isrâ’îl to be those who are the most obsessed with long life among all peoples, no matter what the quality of this life may be, even if it is a life of humiliation and defeat. They are even more obsessed about having a long life than the pagans, those who said, {“There is nothing but our life of this world; we die and we live, and nothing destroys us but time…”, see [surah Al-Jâthiyah (Kneeling): 24]. The pagans have nothing to look forward to beyond this life and yet the Children of Isrâ’îl are more obsessed about having a long life than them. The Children of Isrâ’îl wish they could live for 1000 years. But even if they actually lived for 1000 years, this time would not protect them from Allah’s punishment. Nothing is hidden from Allah. He knows the actions of every single individual and he will repay every single one exactly what they deserve.
  97. During the time of the prophet, the Children of Isrâ’îl said that the angel Jibrîl was their enemy among the angels. This occurred when they asked the Prophet a number of questions, the last of which was the name of the angel who brings him the divine communication. Of course Jibrîl is the same angel who brought the communication to all of Allah’s prophets and messengers, including those sent to the Children of Isrâ’îl themselves. When he answered their question, they stated that Jibrîl was their enemy and they could not follow Muhammad because he was receiving the divine communication through Jibreel. Allah responded to this event by reminding them that Jibrîl is the one who brings Allah’s messages to mankind, messages which guide to the truth and give glad tidings to all who accept the message and believe in it of every good in this life and in the hereafter.
  98. Furthermore, Allah himself is an enemy to anyone who bears enmity toward Allah, his angels, such as Jibrîl or Mîkâ’îl, or any of his angels, prophets and messengers.
  99. Allah sent his final messenger with abundant and clear signs which confirmed the truthfulness of the messenger’s claim. No one rejects the final messenger except those who have strayed far from Allah’s way.
  100. The Children of Isrâ’îl not only had thorough descriptions of Allah’s final messenger (except that they did not realize he would not be from one of their own tribes), but they had also undertaken yet another covenant with Allah that when the final messenger comes they would believe in him and support him in every way. See [surahs Âl `Imrân (The Household of `Imrân): 81 mentioned previously and Al-A`râf: 156 -157]. This is why they used to taunt the pagan Arabs in battle when they experienced any setback, telling them that when the final messenger arrives and they are fighting alongside him, they would surely defeat the Arabs. When the Prophet reminded them of this covenant, they swore that they had undertaken no covenant regarding Muhammad, the final messenger. Allah communicated this particular verse about this matter.
  101. So, when the messenger came to them, this was the fulfillment of what their scholars knew from the Torah. Everything he taught confirmed what they knew from their book in terms of monotheism, this life and the hereafter, reward and punishment, and all the great issues of belief. It also confirmed the foretelling of the coming of Allah’s final messenger, which they had made no secret about with the Arabs. But most of them decided to reject and oppose the messenger publicly. This forced them to turn away from their own religion and its fundamental texts. They cast it aside as if they had no knowledge of its contents, making them the same as the common folk among them who had no actual knowledge of the texts and only followed what they were told, see [verse 78 in this chapter). The Torah in their possession (even in its state at that time) would require that they believe in all the prophets and follow the final Prophet, as they had assumed they would do up to this point in time. But instead they claimed to follow other books in their possession, such as books of sorcery and other forms of disbelief which would not undermine their bogus case against Allah’s final messenger.
  102. Rather than obeying their covenant to Allah and following his final messenger, the Children of Isrâ’îl who were present at the time of the prophet followed the sorcery which the devils had taught to the people during the time of Sulaymân (Solomon). Sulaymân never rejected faith and never learned sorcery. It was the devils who rejected faith when they taught people sorcery and corrupted their faith with it. The Children of Isrâ’îl also followed the sorcery which had come from the two angels Hârût and Mârût. This happened in Bâbîl (Babylon) in the area of Iraq. Allah sent them as a test and a trial for his slaves. They did not teach anyone anything before first advising them and warning them against learning sorcery, saying, “Do not reject (faith) by learning sorcery and obeying the devils.” But some of the people went ahead and learned from those two angels that with which they could seed hatred between husband and wife until they split up and other such acts which sorcerers do. But these sorcerers could never do any harm to anyone except with Allah’s permission and his decree. (And thus, contrary to what even some Muslims today believe, the only way to protect oneself from sorcery is to become closer and closer to Allah, obeying him in all matters and beseeching him for his help – not to attempt to counter sorcery with other sorcery, as some of the foolish people do!) Learning sorcery can only bring harm and is of no benefit, though it may be made to seem beneficial in the short run. Sorcery spread among the Children of Isrâ’îl until some of them preferred it to the book they had received from Allah (the Torah). But, all in all they knew that whoever chose sorcery over the truth would have no share or good in the hereafter. What an evil trade they made when they sold themselves by taking sorcery and rejection in place of faith and following Allah’s messenger. If only the knowledge in their possession had borne the fruit which it brings to those who approach it with an open mind and a clean heart: righteous action, belief and success in this life and in the hereafter.
  103. If the Children of Isrâ’îl to whom Muhammad was sent had maintained their belief, acted according to what they knew from the book which was with them, followed Allah’s final messenger and not succumbed to pride, racial hatred and arrogance, the consequent reward from Allah would be infinitely better than anything they could have imagined they might gain by engaging in sorcery and other things Allah had forbidden them.
  104. The first word mentioned “Râ`inâ” is ambiguous – and could be either of two very different words – when spoken by itself or at the end of a sentence, although it is not ambiguous if written (with vowels) or spoken in the middle of the sentence (and both possible words have come in different recitations of the Qur’ân). Their statement Râ`inâ was taken by the Muslims to be derived from the word Ri`âyah, and the meaning of this derivative would be: “Please tend to us”. But, this exact pronunciation could also be the spoken form of a different word Râ`inan, which means “retarded”, “intellectually slow” or “dazed”. Although it is a completely different word derived from a different root, when it is spoken by itself or at the end of a sentence, the final “n” sound is dropped and the vowel is extended according to the standard rules of spoken Arabic, so it becomes phonetically identical to the previous word. So, the Children of Isrâ’îl used this word with a wrong intention in their hearts to insult and belittle Allah’s messenger. The Muslims understood the respectful meaning, as they would never even think of saying anything like the other word to Allah’s messenger, and began using it themselves, intending to ask Allah’s messenger to tend to them and address their questions. Allah commanded them to switch to an unambiguous word instead, Unzurnâ, which means “look to us” or “tend to us”, which is similar in meaning to the first word above but does not have the phonetic ambiguity when spoken by itself.
  105. The rejecters – those among the People of the Book or the pagans – do not like for any good to come down to you from your lord. They dislike it, whether the blessing from Allah is in the form of the communication of this Qur’ân, other knowledge of divine origin, victory granted to the believers or glad tidings given to them regarding the hereafter. They should realize that Allah gives his special mercy to whoever he wants among his slaves in the form of the prophets and messengers sent to them. And Allah’s generosity is very great.
  106. In this verse, Allah asserts the reality of abrogation during the process of communicating the Qur’an to us. In spite of this very clear statement, some of the ignorant have rejected it and insisted that it never took place. In reality, abrogation definitely occurred and it is of three types: 1) when the verse remains in the Qur’ân that is recited Qur’an but its ruling is altered wholly or partially by another verse or verses, 2) when the verse is removed from the Qur’ân and is mostly forgotten and its ruling is no longer part of the law, and 3) when the verse is removed from the Qur’ân which is recited, but its ruling remains unchanged and in effect (and documented in the authenticated words or deeds of the prophet). Changes in meanings or complete abrogation happens only with regard to rulings, such as orders and prohibitions, making things lawful or unlawful and the like. As for information, such as those about previous nations or unseen matters like the hereafter, these are never changed as the realities they refer to do not change. Allah asserts that any such abrogation of any verse is later followed by further verses (communication) that are communicated containing something better than what was abrogated or equal to it. Do not those who deny that this is possible understand that Allah is all-powerful and in complete control over all things? Nothing is beyond his power and if he chose to abrogate verses or rulings at any point in time only to replace them with something better, then that is according to a wisdom Allah knows and according to what is best and most beneficial for his slaves. See the note for verse 283 of this surah.
  107. Do you not know, O nation of Muhammad, that Allah is the sovereign who does anything he chooses in the heavens and the earth and in his entire creation? He does whatever he wishes, legislates as he chooses, orders his slaves and forbids them in any way he sees fit. What is upon the creation is only to accept and obey. As for the one who rejects and rebels, let him know that there is no one besides Allah who can be his ally or help him in any way, and there is no one who can come between him and Allah’s wrath and punishment.
  108. Allah forbids the believers from asking the Prophet (peace be upon him) too many questions, especially about things which are only theoretical or have not happened. See [surah Al-Mâ’idah (The Table): 101]. The Prophet forbid “it was said and he said” (i.e. gossip and spreading people’s words around), the wasting of wealth and asking too many questions. And he said:“The Muslim who commits the greatest wrong is the one who asks about something which had not been forbidden and then it is forbidden because of his question.”[Related by Al-Bukhârî]The meaning in this hadîth does not refer to asking questions in the sincere pursuit of knowledge, but it refers to asking question in a spirit of mischief or for even worse aims. Two of the pagans of Makkah (Mecca) asked the Prophet to bring down a book from heaven which they could touch and make a river spring forth for them. They added that if he did that they would believe him and follow him. It is narrated that this verse was communicated in response to that event. Anyone who willfully chooses rejection and turns away from belief has strayed from the path to Allah most high and has chosen ignorance and loss instead.
  109. Long before any of us were born, Allah created all of us from Adam. He had us bear witness and acknowledge that he is our one and only lord. See [surah Al-A`râf: 172]. Thus, every one of us has this knowledge of the deity and creator deep within us, in our “blood” or our genes. This knowledge of the deity buried deep within even the staunchest atheist or rejecter of truth causes them to have an uncontrollable negative reaction to believers who follow Allah’s messengers. It is similar to a more trivial phenomenon we commonly witness among people, like when a group of friends have engaged for a long time in something they know is not the best thing to do, such as drinking alcohol or smoking. Now, if one of them suddenly quits but is still with them socially, there will be a palpable irritation or tension between them, and most likely he will be under a lot of pressure to return to the “herd” and join them once again in their harmful acts. Similarly, rejecters are annoyed and irritated by believers, even if there is no direct reason for that, such as any harm directed toward them. They find the very presence of the believers “offensive” and wish they were gone. This is why we see laws in countries like France (and previously in Turkey!) making it an offense to simply appear in public being visibly identifiable as a believer. This is because the collective memory of the covenant we all took with Allah is within each and every one of us. Just as every smoker or drinker of alcohol knows at some level that it would be better if he stopped, those who reject Allah and his messengers also know somewhere deep down inside them: that Allah is their creator and the one and only deserving of their worship and obedience. This inner conflict can provoke irrational and even violent reactions.
  110. So busy yourselves, O believers, with maintaining your prayers in the best manner and paying the prescribed Zakâh (compulsory annual collection for social needs) which has been ordered. And know that for every good deed you send forth for yourselves, you will find its reward waiting for you with Allah in the hereafter. Allah, the most high, sees all of your deeds and will reward you for every good you do.
  111. The Christians and the Jews each claimed that Paradise is exclusively for their own group and that no one else will be allowed to enter it. This is only their own delusion. Allah orders his Prophet to demand that they bring any proof they have of this contention, which of course they cannot. What they failed to understand is that this claim was true, but only in a particular context – in the time of their messenger who was sent from Allah and prior to any subsequent messenger being sent to them. Mûsâ was sent to the Children of Isrâ’îl. So, for all the years before they received another messenger, it was true that for the Children of Isrâ’îl, to whom Mûsâ was sent, there was no way to achieve success and to win Allah’s acceptance and his Paradise except by believing in Mûsâ and the entire content of his message and living according to it. Subsequently, `Îsâ (Jesus) was also sent to this same nation –, namely the Children of Isrâ’îl. Any messenger sent to the same people supersedes the previous one, and any law he brings overrules the laws brought by the previous messenger. Thus, once `Îsâ was sent to the Children of Isrâ’îl, believing in and following his entire message became the only way – for the Children of Isrâ’îl, to whom both Mûsâ and `Îsâ were sent – to achieve success and win Allah’s acceptance and his Paradise. So, this claim was true for the original Christians (as long as they had and were following Îsâ’s true message), but is completely false for all those Jews who refused to follow Isa and rejected him. Finally, Allah sent his final messenger, Muhammad. Unlike all of the previous messengers, Muhammad was sent to all mankind. Thus, his message superseded all previous messages and the laws he brought (i.e. Sharî`ah) overruled all previous divinely-sent laws. So, after the coming of Muhammad – and for any and all people of any nation from that point forward who have heard about his prophethood, the only way to achieve success and win Allah’s acceptance and admission to his Paradise is by believing in and practicing the entire message sent to Allah’s final messenger. Therefore, this issue is not about blood lines, tribes, nations or groups one belongs to. Rather, it is about believing in Allah and all of his messengers, according to the time in which one lives. For the last 14 centuries, that requirement includes believing in and following Allah’s final messenger who was sent to all mankind, Muhammad.
  112. The reality of this issue is not as they have claimed: that Paradise belongs exclusively to this nation or that nation. Those who will enter Paradise are those who sincerely serve Allah, without any division or sharing of their intention to anything other than Allah. Such a person is the one who believes in every messenger of Allah who had been sent at the time when the divine message reaches them. They follow whatever messenger of Allah is current during their time and place in word and deed with total sincerity. Whoever does all of this – from whatever nation, time and place they may be – will find their reward with their lord in the hereafter. They have no cause to fear the future they face nor to grieve over anything left behind in this life. Allah refers to those who “submit their faces” to Allah. One meaning of this is that because the face is the center of one’s honor and one’s personhood. So, whoever submits their face submits fully and absolutely to Allah. Another meaning reported from the companions is that “face” here means their “Dîn” or their practice, i.e., their entire life, what they do and their way of living. For good deeds to be accepted by Allah, they must meet two requirements: 1) that they be done sincerely and totally for Allah’s sake and with no mixing of intention, and 2) that they be in accordance with Allah’s laws. If either of these requirements is missing, no deed can be accepted by Allah and the person is not rewarded for performing it, no matter how good the deed may appear to be. An intention or sincerity to Allah that one claims to be good is of no avail if one’s actions are in contravention of Allah’s laws. Similarly, a lawful deed in accordance with the law but which is done not purely for Allah is not accepted.
  113. Each of the Jews and the Christians rejected the other claiming that the other’s was not the true religion and that the other party had nothing to stand on and no basis for their beliefs or their claims. This was in spite of the fact that each group still had much of their original book and message, in which was the order to believe in Allah and all of his messengers. In spite of this knowledge which was in their possession, their rejection of Allah’s final messenger Muhammad and their claim that he had no foundation in correct beliefs was no different from the rejection of the pagans of Makkah. Because of their ignorance of Allah and their ignorance of the entire process of divine communication (“revelation”) and of all the messengers sent throughout the ages, the pagans claimed that all three groups were incorrect and had no basis for their claims. This was no different from the other two groups who had the wherewithal to know the difference but nonetheless rejected each other’s beliefs and also Allah’s final messenger.
  114. No one is worse in transgression than the one who suppresses the remembrance of Allah in the houses of worship by interfering in the establishment of the prayer, recitation of Allah’s book and other acts of remembrance of Allah. Such people strive to get rid of such places by demolishing them, closing them or blocking the believers from visiting them. Rightfully, such oppressors should never be able to enter such places of worship except in a state of fear of punishment or just retribution for their deeds. Their just lot in this world is scandal and subjugation and in the hereafter a harsh punishment is waiting for them.
  115. To Allah belongs everything and all directions. So, whether you look to the direction from which the sun rises or where it sets, all of that is within the dominion of Allah. So, wherever you turn your face in prayer – in whatever direction Allah has ordered you to turn – you are seeking and facing the direction of Allah and have not departed from his dominion nor from obedience to him. Allah is expansive in his mercy toward his slaves and he is fully aware of all that they do. Nothing whatsoever is outside of his knowledge.
  116. The Christians and the Jews said, each in their own way that Allah had or has offspring. Exalted is he above what they have said. Everything and everyone in the entire universe are his creation, his possession and his slaves. All are in submission and subjugation to Allah and bound by his every decree as to their actions and their fate.
  117. Allah Most High created everything, the heavens, the earth and the entire universe and everything in it from nothing and where there was previously nothing. Anything which Allah decides to be will come into existence or happen and merely requires his divine word “Be” and it is.
  118. The ignorant among the People of the Book and others asked Allah’s messenger – out of stubbornness – why didn’t Allah speak to them directly to tell them that Muhammad is indeed his messenger? Or why couldn’t Allah bring forth some kind of miracle to attest to Muhammad’s truthfulness? But every prophet and messenger throughout the ages had people who used to say the same things to them, out of stubbornness and arrogance. This is because the hearts of the ignorant among humans are very similar in all times and places throughout history when they fall into rejection and arrogance. Allah has made his signs clear for those free of such ailments who truly believe in Allah and follow what he has ordained and legislated for them.
  119. It is Allah alone who sent Muhammad (and all other messengers) with the correct way supported by proofs, miracles and signs. The Messenger is commanded to deliver this message to all he can along with glad tidings to the believers as to their condition in this life and in the hereafter and with clear warnings to the stubborn and recalcitrant as to what awaits them. After fulfilling this – warning and giving of good tidings – the prophet has no further responsibility towards those who reject and disbelieve. They will face Allah’s judgment alone and enter the fires of Hell for their rejection and disbelief, never to come out therefrom.
  120. In this verse Allah informs his Prophet, Muhammad, (and also us) that for the most part, neither the Jews nor the Christians are going to accept Allah’s final message in spite of the clear similarity and common source of Allah’s final message to mankind and what their ancestors received, as well as the foretelling of Allah’s final messenger in their own scriptures. The foolishness of clinging to what one inherits from their parents and ancestors – following the “herd” or the tribe – even if it is counter to all reason and good sense is a prevalent condition among mankind. For more details see verse (170) in the current chapter. As such, Muhammad and all believers are reminded to abandon concentrating on seeking to please the People of the Book or seeking what is in harmony with their desires or inclinations, in the hope that this will break the logjam and allow them to see the truth of Allah’s final message. Rather, his (and our) emphasis must always be to please Allah. As for the people, from whatever groups they may be, the task of the Messenger (and us) is to call them to the truth which came from Allah. Then, Allah says, {“Allah’s guidance is the [true] guidance”} or “Guidance is what Allah has sent.” It is the sole path to the way of life (“religion”) which is upright, correct, complete and perfect. This is what we must call the people to, nothing more and nothing less. Finally, Allah warns his final messenger (and us) that if, out of concern for the People of the book and his (and our) passion to guide them to the truth and save them from Allah’s wrath, he (or we) depart from or compromise the truth he (we) have been given in any way, seeking to please them and attract them to Islam – then in such a case even the Messenger himself would face Allah’s wrath for that and would find no ally nor any helper against Allah. The obligation on the Messenger and the believers after him is to deliver Allah’s message to all mankind as accurately and as fully as possible. As for who exactly will be granted success to believe in Allah and gain Allah’s acceptance and who will not, this depends entirely on Allah’s decree and decision and is outside of our control, see [surah Al-Qasas (The Narratives): 56].
  121. On the other hand, there are those among the People of the Book who recite the book they have and follow it truly. They believe in all that came in the previous communications regarding belief in the messengers of Allah, including the seal of the messengers and the final prophet Muhammad, upon whom is the commendation and protection of Allah. They neither distort nor change what has reached them of the prior divine communications. They hold as lawful what is defined therein as lawful and hold as forbidden what is defined therein as forbidden, without distorting, changing or discarding any of that. These are the ones who believed in Muhammad when he was sent to the world and accepted his message. As for some others among the People of the Book, those who changed, distorted and concealed what they possessed of the prior divine communication, they are the rejecters of Allah’s final messenger and the final message he brought. All who reject Allah or any of his messengers will be the biggest losers before Allah on the day of recompense.
  122. Allah calls on the descendants of Ya`qûb (Jacob), i.e., the Children of Isrâ’îl, to remember his great favors upon them. He favored their ancestors over all the peoples of those times with the large number of messengers whom he sent to them with guidance and light.
  123. Allah reminds the Children of Isrâ’îl (and also all mankind) to guard themselves against the trials of a day when no soul can help another soul in any way. No payment will be accepted from anyone, nor will the intercession of anyone be able to protect anyone from the punishment of the hellfire. There will be no one to help them and they will be accountable for all they have done or not done. That is the day of recompense in the hereafter.
  124. Both the Christians and the Jews believe themselves to be upon the legacy of Ibrâhîm, but Allah declares that this is not so. In fact, it is Muhammad who is upon the way of Ibrâhîm. Ibrâhîm was given orders and rulings from Allah and he fulfilled them absolutely and completely. Even when he was ordered to sacrifice his dear son Ismâ`îl like a sheep, he showed complete willingness to obey Allah’s order. His obedience was sufficient and Allah did not make him actually kill his own son. Ibrâhîm was not a Christian nor was he a Jew. Rather, he was a monotheist, one in complete submission to Allah (i.e., a muslim) and a messenger of Allah. See [surah (Âl `Imrân: 67-68]. When Allah’s messenger Ibrâhîm completely fulfilled his obligations to Allah, Allah made him an imam (leader, example) to all mankind. Ibrâhîm asked Allah to grant him the honor of making his descendants to similarly be leaders for mankind. Allah responded that his covenant does not extend to any wrongdoers. This means that the quality of leadership is based on vigilance, belief, knowledge and good deeds, not on any bloodline, even bloodlines directly from one of Allah’s messengers, such as Ibrâhîm.
  125. Next Allah reminds his final messenger Muhammad of his favor upon him in the form of the sacred mosque in Makkah. It was established by Ibrâhîm and his son Ismâ`îl many years earlier as a place for worshiping the one and only creator. And, even though in the intervening centuries the pagans of Makkah had defiled it with idols and outrageous behavior, it remained nonetheless a place of safety to which people could return time after time without fear of being attacked by any enemy. Allah orders Muhammad (and the Muslims) to take the spot on which Ibrâhîm stood while he was building the Ka`bah as a place of prayer. This place is known until today and it is customary for people on major or minor pilgrimage to pray there. It is a stone on which Ibrâhîm stood when he was building the original Ka`bah (the large cube-shaped building within the sacred mosque). Perhaps it was clay at that time and then later turned to stone. It is now encased in glass and the imprint of Ibrahim’s feet are clearly visible. Allah took a promise or covenant from Ibrahim and his son upon the building of the Kaaba to cleanse Allah’s house (the sacred mosque) of every impure thing or act, thereby keeping it pure for the worshippers making the circumambulation around the Ka`bah, or staying and praying in the sacred mosque.
  126. This is Ibrâhîm’s wonderful supplication for the city of Makkah. He asked Allah to keep it a place of safety and to bless its inhabitants with their needs in terms of sustenance and wealth. He asked in particular for this to be provided for the believers among them, those who believed in Allah and in the day of recompense. Allah replied that the rejecters, too, would get their needs in this life, which would sustain them for a while until Allah would drive them to their final destination, the eternal punishment in the fire.
  127. Allah reminds us of when Ibrâhîm and his son Ismâ`îl built the Ka`bah, establishing its foundation and raising its walls. They beseeched Allah with all humility asking that he accept their deed and their prayer, invoking his perfect attributes of hearing and knowing all matters, i.e., that he hears all that his slaves say and knows everything about their condition.
  128. Ibrâhîm and his son Ismâ`îl continued with their prayer to Allah, asking that he make them among those who submit fully to Allah (muslims) and make their descendants likewise a people in submission to Allah. And, they asked Allah to teach them all the rituals they need to perform and accept their repentance as Allah is the most accepting of repentance and is very merciful.
  129. Then Ibrâhîm and his son Ismâ`îl asked Allah to raise up among their descendants a messenger from Allah who would recite and teach them Allah’s signs (verses) and teach them both Allah’s book and the wisdom, i.e., all the other teachings given to us from Allah via Muhammad in addition to the Qur’ân. He would teach them that which cleanses them of the impurity of idol worship and of lowly character. And they invoked his perfect attributes by declaring that Allah is the mighty who cannot be prevented from carrying out anything he chooses to do and the wise who places everything exactly where it belongs. This supplication of Ibrâhîm and his son of course matched the ancient decision of Allah that his final messenger would be commissioned in Makkah at the exact time Muhammad was actually commissioned as Allah’s final messenger.
  130. This is the true tradition of Ibrâhîm, culminating in its final manifestation in Allah’s final messenger Muhammad. It was decreed by Allah that Muhammad would be his final messenger and Ibrâhîm and his son prayed for him to be the final and greatest divine honor upon his family. Who can reject this great fact but one who has fallen into foolishness? Allah has chosen Ibrâhîm in this world to be one of his greatest messengers and in the hereafter he will be among the most righteous who have the highest station and the greatest reward.
  131. The greatness of Ibrâhîm and his high station with Allah is manifest in the fact that Allah commanded him to submit and he submitted without a moment’s hesitation. Allah commanded him to sincerely and devotedly submit and follow his every order. He responded that he is in total submission to the lord of the worlds, following the path of sincerity, monotheism, love and penitence.
  132. Ibrâhîm was the father of Ismâ`îl and Ishâq (Isaac). The Arabs are descendants of Ismâ`îl, who built the original Ka`bah in Makkah along with his father. Ishâq was the father of Ya`qûb, who was also known as Isra’îl. The descendants of Ya`qûb (Isra’îl) became the 12 tribes of Isra’îl who collectively are referred to in the Qur’ân as the Children of Isra’îl. Both Ibrâhîm and Ya`qûb, as well as all of their family members lived in submission to Allah and in obedience to his laws. The word in Arabic for one who does this is “muslim”, literally, “one in surrender”. And each of them did their best to counsel all of their children to remain steadfast and constant on the path of complete submission to Allah alone – which is precisely the meaning of the Arabic word “islam” (surrender).
  133. So Allah asks, addressing the Children of Isra’îl present with Muhammad who were rejecting his message, if they were present when their ancestor Ya`qûb was on his death bed. Did they hear when he gathered his children and asked them what they would worship after his death? The children answered that of course they would continue to worship Allah alone, as did their forebears Ibrâhîm and his two sons Ismâ`îl and Ishâq – one deity to which they were in complete and total submission (Islam).
  134. Although these people – Ibrâhîm, his sons Ismâ`îl and Ishâq, and all of their descendants – are the ancestors of the Children of Isra’îl in Madînah who were receiving Allah’s final message from Muhammad, they are a nation which has come and gone. They will answer for their actions and every generation after them will answer for their own actions. None of them will carry the burdens or sins of another and none of them can avail anyone who disbelieves in Allah by rejecting any of his messengers. The later generations will not be questioned about the actions of the earlier generations nor the other way around. No one will receive any benefit except by their own vigilance, belief and obedience.
  135. But many were stuck in whatever tradition they were born into, unable to look beyond it to reach the truth. So they said, “The only way to be saved is to follow our (Christian or Jewish) way. That is the only way to be guided.” No, rather we state clearly that we are upon the way of Ibrâhîm who was an absolute monotheist in submission to Allah (i.e. a muslim), and he did not divide his worship of Allah or his obedience to Allah with anything or anyone else whatsoever. And, when he prayed to Allah to make his descendants a righteous nation and leaders for mankind, Allah responded by reminding him that Allah’s covenant does not extend to the wrongdoers.
  136. As Muslims, we are the only ones who believe in all of Allah’s prophets and messengers, from Adam to Muhammad. We announce to all that we believe in Allah, the one and only deity and the only one rightfully worshipped. And we believe in Allah’s words which he sent down to us – the Qur’ân – which he communicated, word for word, to Muhammad through the angel Jibrîl. And we believe in the divine communications (books) which were given to Ibrâhîm and his children Ismâ`îl and Ishâq, and to Ya`qûb and the tribes, i.e., all of the prophets among the descendants of the children of Ya`qûb (Isrâ’îl), who are the twelve tribes. And we believe in the original Torah which was communicated to Mûsâ and the original Injîl given to `Isâ, the son of Maryam and in all of the divine communications given to all of the prophets and messengers throughout the ages. We do not differentiate between any of the prophets and messengers, we believe in all of them and proclaim that they all delivered Allah’s messages faithfully, even though such messages are no longer available in their original form. And we are humble before our lord in obedience and servitude.
  137. So if anyone believes as you believe, meaning that they believe in Allah and all of his messengers, then they are upon guidance and there is no barrier or difference between any of the believers. It does not matter at all what group, nation or previous belief they had. Anyone who believes in Allah and all of his messengers is a believer. This means that someone who knows nothing of Islam but who believes in whatever they know about Allah’s messenger is not condemnable. But it is the duty of the believers to provide him with the knowledge of Allah’s final messenger and the message he brought to the people of the world. After that, it will be clear whether any particular person is in fact a believer or a rejecter. But for those who, even after knowledge comes to them, reject and disbelieve, they are in a state of rebellion and their enmity toward the believers is all but inevitable. See [surah Âl `Imrân (The Household of `Imrân): 118-119]. But Allah assures the believers that as long as they are steadfast and put their trust in him, he will suffice them against any intrigues and plots carried out by those who bear enmity toward the believers.
  138. The word sibgha, translated as “induction” or “baptism” also means dye. The meaning of “Allah’s sibgha” here is the attribute of monotheistic belief and submission to Allah (“islam”) which is common to all of Allah’s prophets and messengers throughout the ages and those who follow them. Perhaps this word is used here because the Christians used to immerse their children in water in a ritual they call baptism and it was referred to in Arabic with this word. They believe this somehow sanctifies the child and makes them Christian or gives them that attribute, like the way dying cloth gives it the attribute of a new color. So, when they said to Muhammad and the Muslims, “You must be Christian to be guided” or “You must be Jewish to be guided”, Allah told Muhammad to say to them, “Rather, follow the way of Ibrâhîm. This is the “baptism” of Allah, which is the best baptism of all. It is belief in Allah and full submission to his rulings which makes one a believer and admits one to the ranks of those who believe, not some ritual with water. To be a believer means complete monotheism and complete submission to Allah (islam). So, stop directing worship to other than Allah and stop all forms of deviation and rebellion and come to the pure and clear way of guidance.” This is the nature upon which Allah created all of us. When we dispense with all divided worship (including all kinds of polytheism) or rebelliousness against Allah, we return to our pure nature of serving, worshipping and loving the one and only deity and submitting to his rulings, his orders and his prohibitions. This is the direct “baptism” of Allah, and it is the best baptism of all. This is what makes one a believer, not immersion in water.
  139. Ask the People of the Book (Jews and Christians): “Do you dispute with us about Allah and about having complete devotion and sincerity to him? Allah is the lord of all and is not specific to one nation or one people or another. He created all the nations and all the peoples. We have our deeds (and will face their consequences) and likewise, you have your deeds. We direct our purity of intention and our complete submission to Allah and to Allah alone. We associate no one with Allah in that and worship no person, thing or entity other than Allah in any way whatsoever.
  140. So Ibrâhîm, his sons Ismâ`îl and Ishâq, and the latter’s son Ya`qûb (Isra’îl) as well as the twelve tribes coming from him are the antecedents of the Children of Isrâ’îl in Madînah. But only the believers are truly members of the nation of those noble ancestors. You cannot claim that any of these individuals or any of the many prophets and messengers that Allah sent through the ages were Jews or Christians. They lived long before the Torah was given to Mûsâ and long before Paul and the other gospel writers authored the New Testament. So, do you know better or is it Allah who knows better? Allah informs us that those mentioned were complete monotheists and lived in full submission to Allah, i.e., they were muslim. The People of the Book around Muhammad had enough of their original teachings in their possession to know all of this – to know that what Muhammad brought was the selfsame message brought by all the prophets and messengers throughout the ages and that Muhammad was in fact the final messenger from Allah foretold in their scriptures. There is no greater wrong than concealing what you know about such an important matter and claiming its opposite, forging a lie against Allah because of some petty worldly concerns. Allah is fully aware of all that you do and will hold everyone accountable for their deeds.
  141. Those (the ancestors of the People of the Book in Madînah) are a nation who have come and gone. They have their deeds (and will face their consequences) and you have your deeds. Neither you nor they will be asked about the deeds of the other. This verse negates being overly concerned with ancestry and negates being arrogant based on one’s blood lineage. Rather, the sole criteria is the level of one’s faith, service to Allah alone and belief in and following of all of Allah’s messengers. Also, it makes clear that anyone who rejects any of Allah’s messengers is in fact a disbeliever in all of them.
  142. The Prophet prayed in the direction of Jerusalem for 16 or 17 months after the prayer was ordained. Then he received the communication from Allah to change the direction of prayer from the north to the south and to face the sacred mosque established by Ibrâhîm and his son Ismâ`îl instead. Some people among the People of the Book, the pagans, or the hypocrites asked by way of mockery, “What has switched them from their old prayer-direction to their new one?” Why did Allah describe those who asked such a question as foolish or intellectually incompetent? First of all, because it is clear for all to see that the first prayer-direction, the prayer itself and everything else the Prophet taught the people were all communicated from Allah, the lord of the worlds. And this is obviously the source of the second direction, too, so on what basis could one distinguish between them? Secondly, the prophets and messengers and the believers are all one nation. The Jews claimed to follow Mûsâ who brought the Torah and their center was Jerusalem. Ibrâhîm was the ancestor of Mûsâ and a messenger long before him. He established the sacred mosque in Makkah, and although the pagans had defiled it after that with idol-worship, it was nonetheless a place of worship established by one of the greatest messengers of Allah and dedicated to the one and only deity, Allah the most high. So, the initial prayer-direction asserted the connection between Mûsâ and Muhammad. Anyone who truly wanted to follow Mûsâ would have to follow Muhammad since anyone who rejects any of Allah’s messengers is the same as one who rejects all of them. The second and final prayer-direction reached back even farther and established the connection between Ibrâhîm and Muhammad, both messengers of Allah and both of whom brought the selfsame message of absolute monotheism and submission to Allah, the most high (Islam). And finally, Allah is the absolute lord of all things in all directions and is not in one direction to the exclusion of all others. So, praying in the direction in which Allah ordered the prayer to be performed is the way to pray “to” Allah. To follow any other direction after this order would be to turn one’s back on Allah.
  143. Muhammad is the first, last and only messenger sent to all mankind. The previous messengers were sent only to their own people, while Muhammad was sent for all people, and there will be no messenger after him. As such, the responsibility upon the Muslim nation is to be an example to all of the world, and to deliver and represent Allah’s final message to mankind so that all may have a chance to believe and succeed. If the Muslims fulfill this obligation, they will be called as witnesses over the nations on the day of resurrection. They will be able to testify that they delivered the Message that re-asserted the divine teachings that every nation had received at some point, and corrected whatever beliefs or practices had become corrupted. Just as the Muslims were guided by Allah to the final and eternal prayer-direction, they likewise received from Allah his final message in its final and perfect form. Allah informed us that every single nation did indeed receive a messenger from Allah at some point in time. Allah’s final message has been protected and safeguarded by Allah Himself against any change, distortion or loss. See [surah Al-Hijr (Thamûd’s Habitation): 9]. But the Muslims need to remain true to the message delivered by Muhammad. Thus, the Prophet will be called as a witness over the Muslims – for or against them. The Prophet faithfully delivered Allah’s final message and Allah protected his final message from loss or distortion. But, did the Muslims believe in it, live by it and deliver its teachings to the world by word and deed, as they have been commanded to do? The Prophet himself will be the witness regarding that. Allah knows and has always known who is destined to be a believer or a disbeliever (rejecter). Nonetheless, he sometimes tests people to bring such matters out in the open. The change in the Qiblah (prayer-direction) was such a test. Some of the Arabs may have disliked the first direction because it favored Jerusalem, the center of the Jews and of Mûsâ, who they knew little about, over Makkah, which was the place established by Ibrâhîm and his son Ismâ`îl and was in their homeland. Some Jews may have been more likely to accept the prayer being toward Jerusalem than Makkah, even though Ibrâhîm was also among their ancestors. Finally, the ignorant among all of these groups might question how the prayer-direction could even be changed. How could a correct prayer be toward Jerusalem one day but toward Makkah the next? They were ignorant of the fact that Allah owns all the directions and can do whatever he wishes whenever he wishes. So, this was their test, and some of them failed it. All of those prayers – before and after the change in direction – were just as valid and just as authentic. Allah will not ignore any good deeds of those who believe. In this verse Allah uses the word Îmân (belief) and clearly means by it deeds – i.e. the prayers performed toward Jerusalem before the change of the Qiblah. This is one of the proofs that deeds are part of faith or belief. This means that the translation of the word “Îmân” as “belief” is deficient, since the English word only includes convictions or “actions of the heart”, whereas the Islamic term Îmân means (I) profession with the tongue, (II) conviction in the heart (i.e. “belief”), and (III) actions, both mental and physical, in accordance with that “belief”.
  144. While the prayer was still being made toward Jerusalem, Muhammad was anticipating the coming change in the prayer-direction (i.e. the Qiblah) and was looking upward hoping for the communication to come making the prayer-direction towards Makkah. It came in this verse. Allah tells his messenger that of course he is aware of his longing for the coming change and he is changing the prayer-direction to one that will please Muhammad, the direction of Ibrâhîm, the direct ancestor of the Arabs (and the Jews) and who they were aware of his being the one who built the sacred mosque in Makkah. Allah also informs us in this verse that the People of the Book knew full well that this final prayer-direction was coming and that it is truly by Allah’s order because it was foretold in the books they have.
  145. This verse tells about the rejection and disbelief of the Children of Isra’il in spite of the knowledge they had which showed them that Muhammad was indeed the foretold final messenger of Allah. The prayer-direction is just a minor detail and an excuse for them to again show their stubbornness and disregard for the truth. So, no matter what proof is presented to them, it is not going to get them to admit to the truth – because they already have sufficient information to know the truth. So, they will never follow the prayer-direction set by Allah. And the Prophet will never follow their prayer-direction because he is firmly committed to following Allah’s orders. This makes clear that the Prophet praying toward Jerusalem had nothing to do with it being the direction of the Children of Isra’il. It was Allah’s order plain and simple, the same as the subsequent order to pray toward Makka. Finally, Allah warns against one who knows the truth but goes against the truth he knows. Knowledge brings with it responsibility and one who knows will face a stronger argument against him than those who don’t know should he stray from what he knows. This is why Allah said to his messenger (and to all the believers by extension): ),{“And if you were to follow their inclinations, even after the knowledge which has come to you, you would surely be among the wrongdoers”}.[Al-Baqarah (The Cow): 67-68]
  146. Those to whom Allah gave the previous books – the Torah and the Injeel – i.e., the Jewish rabbis and the Christian scholars, know that Muhammad is Allah’s final messenger. They know this from the attributes and descriptions in the writings they possess regarding Allah’s final messenger. They know Muhammad to be Allah’s final messenger like they know their own sons who they can easily distinguish from anyone else’s children. In spite of this, many of them conceal the truth and deny it, though they know it. Concealing evidence and knowledge which one has from Allah regarding an important fact, such as the fact that Muhammad is Allah’s final messenger, is a major sin, see verse 140 in this chapter. The scholars and religious leaders guilty of this will carry their own sin as well as the sins of those who trusted them and believed what they said.
  147. Allah tells Muhammad (and us) that the communication coming to him from his lord is the truth, so have no doubt about that. In this case, although the statement is addressed to the Prophet, the intended audience is the Muslims at large, as is frequently the case in Allah’s book with such statements.
  148. For each of the nations (i.e., religions) is a direction, and they are partisan to it. Allah has now ordered all of the nations via his final messenger to take Makkah as their direction of prayer and their focus. But, it is Allah’s decision that many will remain partisan to what their “people” have and what they were given and will not obey Allah’s subsequent orders. This verse is strikingly similar to that of surah Al-Mâ’idah where Allah says:{“And we sent the book down to you with the truth, a confirmation of the books which came before it and an authority over them. So, adjudicate between them with what Allah sent down and do not stray from the truth which has come to you, following their inclinations or preferences. For each, we have made a system of law and a program. If Allah wished he could have made all of you a single nation, but he decided to test you with what was given to you. So, compete for what is best for you; unto Allah is your return and he will inform you about all that in which you used to differ.”}[Surah Al-Mâ’idah (The Table): 48]So, it was Allah’s decree for these divisions to persist and for many people from many nations to stubbornly cling to what they have and refuse to accept subsequent messages from Allah – all of this is in order to bring out into the open those who believe and obey and those who turn on their heels based on something other than the truth, such as loyalty to their tribe, ancestors or customs.
  149. In this verse, Allah repeats the order to face Makkah in prayer. It is said that the significance of this repetition is for emphasis (which is common in Arabic) because this is the very first instance of abrogation [see, verse 106 in this chapter and its note].
  150. This is the third time Allah states the order to face Makkah in prayer. In verse 144 the focus is on Allah bringing an order which is pleasing to his beloved prophet who was anxiously awaiting the change of the prayer-direction to his beloved Makkah. In verse (149) Allah reminds us all that while this is something that pleases the Messenger, it is ultimately his order and the truth directly from Allah, it was always destined to be so and there is no transitory reason in the immediate present which has anything to do with Allah’s changing the prayer-direction from Jerusalem to Makkah. Finally in this verse (150), Allah mentions that this cuts off at the root any of the arguments or issues the people may have with Allah’s decree. So, the Children of Isra’îl, for example, used the first prayer-direction (Jerusalem) as an argument that they still had some kind of authenticity, even as they rejected Allah’s final message – because Allah’s messenger was facing their prayer-direction established by Mûsâ – even though they knew full well from the books in their possession that in the end Allah’s final messenger will be directed to the prayer-direction of their earlier ancestor Ibrâhîm, which means toward the Ka`bah established by Ibrâhîm in Muhammad’s home town of Makkah. Likewise, the pagan Arabs were left with no complaint regarding the prayer-direction being toward some “foreign” city to which they had little connection as it was now directed toward the sacred mosque in Makkah, for which they had great reverence, long history and much respect.
  151. Allah reminds the believers that just as he gave them the great gift of setting the prayer direction to the sacred mosque established by Ibrahim in Makka, greater still was his gift of raising the final messenger among them (the people of Makka). This Messenger brought them the recited signs (verses) of Allah. He cleansed them of all aspects of bad character and the despicable acts of their age of foolishness which preceded the commissioning of Muhammad. And, he teaches them the Qur’an, Allah’s final book for mankind and the wisdom which in this context means all of the divinely-inspired teachings which Allah gave to Muhammad who taught them to us. These teachings of both word and deed have been meticulously recorded, verified and preserved in many books and these written records are collectively known as hadith. The Qur’an and the hadith are the two halves of the divine communication (“revelation”) given to Muhammad as Allah’s final message to mankind.
  152. Allah ordered the believers to remember him, mention him and maintain consciousness of him. And, for that he promised them the most beautiful reward imaginable: that those who maintain consciousness and remembrance of Allah will be mentioned and praised in the loftiest assembly, that of the angels in the presence of Allah. And we should direct our gratitude exclusively to Allah – gratitude expressed both verbally and through our actions – and not fail to recognize his great favors upon us. It is reported that Mûsâ asked Allah:“How can I thank you?” Allah replied, “Remember me and do not forget me. When you remember me, you have thanked me, but when you forget me you have rejected me.”[Related by Al-Bayhaqî]
  153. After informing us about the need for gratitude in the previous verse, Allah moves directly to reminding us of the need for patience. The believers are to seek guidance and support from patience and from prayer as well. This is because human life revolves around two conditions. Either 1) we are in a condition of good, ease and plenty, so we should be grateful to Allah for what we have been given and to manifest that gratitude in word (prayer, upright speech, etc.) and deed such as giving to those in need from what we have been given and obeying Allah in terms of how we acquire wealth and what we do with it. Or, 2) we are in the second condition, in trials and tests, shortages and deprivation. In this state, our only salvation is to be patient with what Allah has decreed for us and to turn to Allah for relief from whatever afflicts us. The Prophet said:“How amazing is the case of the believer. Whatever Allah decrees for him is good for him. If he experiences ease and plenty, he gives thanks to Allah, and that is good for him. And, if he experiences hardship and trials, he is patient, and that is good for him.”[Related by Muslim]According to another narration of the same incident, the Prophet added:“And this is for no one but the believer.”[Related by Ibn Hibbân]
  154. Allah informs us that those who died fighting for Allah’s cause, with complete sincerity and devotion and having no ulterior motives, are in a state of life. They are between this world and the hereafter and are being provided for by Allah, the most high. In an authentic (Sahîh) hadîth, reported in Sahîh Muslim, the Prophet said:“Their souls (i.e. the martyrs) are in the breasts of green birds for which there are lanterns hanging from the throne (of Allah). They fly wherever they wish in Paradise and then return to (the shelter of) these lanterns. Allah gives a look at them and said, ‘Do you want anything?’ They reply, ‘What could we possibly want while we fly wherever we wish in Paradise?’ (But) Allah asked them the same question three times. When they realized they would be asked until they answer, they said, ‘We wish that our souls are returned to our bodies so that we (once again fight in your cause and) be killed for your sake another time.’ (Because of what they now know of the great reward for martyrdom.) When he (Allah) saw that they want nothing, they were left (to their joy in Paradise).”[Related by Muslim]This means that it is Allah’s ancient and permanent decision that anyone who dies in this world and moves on to the next, can never return to this world a second time. This refutes all of the myths regarding “ghosts” and “spirits of ancestors” that the ignorant have made up over the centuries in various times and places.
  155. The life of this world is a time of tests and trials. A believer needs to be conscious of Allah, grateful to Allah and patient with whatever Allah decrees to come to pass in order to pass through these trials and pass these tests resulting in the mercy and acceptance of Allah and admission to his Paradise. The word Sabr, translated as “patience” also means steadfastness, perseverance and acceptance, meaning acceptance of whatever Allah has decreed. If they are tested with good things, wealth and power, their remembrance of Allah, their gratitude to Allah and their patience holds them back from being arrogant, abusing their power or oppressing others because they have the ability to do so. In times of deprivation or hardship, these same attributes prevent them from despair, from losing hope in the infinite mercy of Allah or turning to disobedience to Allah or any unlawful means of seeking relief from their predicament. So, in this verse Allah gives the glad tidings to those who maintain all of this.
  156. Allah further describes the people of patience, perseverance, and steadfastness, who accept whatever Allah decrees, those who, when afflicted with a calamity of any nature or magnitude, remember Allah, where they came from, and their final destination by saying, “Surely we belong to Allah and are returning to Allah.”
  157. So, those with this attribute of patience and perseverance who, when afflicted by any calamity say, “We belong to Allah and to him we will return” will be praised or spoken highly of by Allah Himself. Abû Sinân reports:“I buried one of my sons. I was still in the grave when Abû Talhah seized my hand and pulled me out of the grave. He said, ‘Should I not give you great news?’ I said, ‘Of course yes.’ He said that Allah’s messenger (peace be upon him) said: Allah said to the angel of death: ‘Have you taken the life of my servant’s child? Have you taken from him the peace of his eyes and the issue of his heart?’ He answered: ‘Yes.’ Allah then asked: ‘What did he say?’ He answered: ‘He praised you and said “Surely we belong to Allah, and surely to him we will return.”’ So Allah said: ‘Build for my servant a house in Paradise and name it the house of gratitude.’”[Related by At-Tirmidhî]Thus, a Muslim should be grateful and gives thanks to Allah under all conditions, whether under conditions we think are good (i.e. health, wealth, etc.) or under conditions we think are a test for us from Allah (i.e. illness, poverty, death, etc.).
  158. As-Safâ and Al-Marwah are the names of two elevated rocky areas in the vicinity of the Ka`bah. When the mother of Ismâ`îl (Hâjar) was left there – and it was nothing but desert at the time – she began to panic when she had no water for herself and the infant Ismâ`îl. She went up onto As-Safâ to search the horizon for anyone who could help her. Then she ran all the way to Al-Marwah, several hundred meters away, and did likewise. She ran thus back and forth until the spring of Zamzam burst out of the desert and relieved her distress. In the intervening centuries between Ibrâhîm (Abraham) and Muhammad, the pagans of Makkah had placed an idol on each of the two mounts while continuing the ritual of pacing between them. The people of Madînah who worshipped different idols had stopped this ritual for that reason. After the restoration of monotheism with the coming of Islam, both parties felt this was something from the pre-Islamic era and so they should not do it. Allah revealed this verse stating that now that all idolatry had been cleansed from Makkah, there is nothing wrong with the original ritual, which is an act in remembrance of Ibrâhîm, Ismâ`îl and Ismâ`îl’s mother. Thereupon, the Prophet himself established the practice of walking and running between the two mounts, so no one could question it or doubt it after that.
  159. Those who conceal the clear proofs given to them by Allah that Muhammad is the final messenger of Allah and his message is the truth commit not only a great sin for which they will be accountable but also a crime against humanity. This is because they have used their credibility – as they are known to be the descendants of a people who received a previous messenger from Allah – to deceive people and lead them away from the chance at guidance and achieving success. This is applicable to all people, in general, and specifically to the learned among the Christians and the Jews who concealed and refused to acknowledge the information in their scriptures which confirmed the prophethood of Muhammad. These will be cast at a great distance from Allah’s mercy and will be cursed on the tongues of all creation for what they did. Abû Hurayrah, who narrated thousands of statements and deeds of the Prophet said:“…Were it not for a single verse in Allah’s book, I would never have reported a single hadîth to you. Then he recited Allah’s saying, {“Surely, those who conceal the proofs and guidance which we have sent down to them after we have clarified it for the people in the book, they are cursed by Allah and are cursed by those who curse”}.”[Related by Ahmad ]And he mentioned the above-mentioned verse. The awesome responsibility of reporting things to others from Allah’s final messenger and the need to be sure that it is reported with complete accuracy was not enough for him to withhold anything he knew to be true because of the warning in this verse about concealing any part of the divine message.
  160. This crime (of concealing or distorting what you know from Allah’s communication to mankind) can be reversed for anyone who changes their ways, reveals clearly to the people what they were concealing and rectifies their actions. Allah will accept the repentance of all such people, and he is the quickest to forgive and accept repentance.
  161. As for any who reject and deny belief, conceal and distort the truth and die in that state, upon such is the curse of Allah, the angels and the people at large. When the word “La`nah”, translated here as “curse”, is from Allah, it refers to being cast far from any possibility of receiving Allah’s mercy. When it is from the angels or fellow humans, it refers to speaking ill of them and invoking Allah to put them in this position, i.e. being far from his mercy, due to their transgression and their wicked deeds toward Allah and toward their fellow humans.
  162. Such people will be in this cast-off and rejected position forever. Their punishment will not be lightened nor will their case be re-considered.
  163. Your lord is one. He is one, alone and unique in his essence, in all of his names and attributes, in his actions and in his exclusive right to be worshiped by his slaves. Nothing and no one shares any of his most perfect attributes. Allah has no human attributes and no human has any of Allah’s attributes, though those attributes may share the same names. Nothing and no one is rightfully worshipped but Allah. He is the most merciful. Mercy is an attribute which is basic to Allah’s essence and his actions toward all of his creation. Yet, he has a special mercy reserved for the believers among his slaves who devote all of their worship exclusively and sincerely to him.
  164. Consider the many signs of Allah all around you; look at the heavens and the earth, the cycle of day and night, large celestial bodies in perfect harmony bring about a cycle of light and dark and hot and cold, which perfectly suits humans and animals in Allah’s creation so they can live and thrive here on earth; consider the almost unimaginable magnitude of Allah’s creation; look at the star in the night sky and ponder that the light you are seeing tonight could have left that star hundreds of millions of years ago. Do we even know what is there “now”? Or, what “now” even means in this context? Consider the water cycle on the earth; Allah causes the water to be drawn up into the atmosphere and then to fall back down where it is needed for vegetation, animals and human life so they can thrive, multiply, spread and migrate. Consider the winds that are driven in various directions by Allah as part of the elaborate weather system Allah created for the earth. Consider the clouds beautifully suspended between earth and space. In all of this are clear signs of the existence and reality of Allah for those who truly use their minds.
  165. In spite of this overwhelming evidence of Allah, there are many people who take something or someone other than Allah as objects of their love, gratitude, fear and worship in ways which are only appropriate to Allah, the one and only creator and sustainer of all things. They take something else as their “deity”, whether knowingly or unknowingly. Perhaps it is an idol or graven image or some personality they imagine to be of special status (e.g., a “saint”) either living or dead. Or, it could be their race or nationality which they imagine to be superior to all others, “chosen” or incapable of being wrong. Or, it could be themselves as in their own minds or intellect. In other words, their deity has become their own intellect if they only accept what they “think” is right but accept nothing from Allah and his messengers unless and until they “understand” it and agree with it. So, they elevate such things to a status they do not deserve and direct their love, obedience and devotion to them in a way that only belongs rightfully to Allah. On the other hand, the believers have the strongest love for Allah. They have dedicated their worship, their intention, their love and their very lives completely and solely to their lord and creator, Allah the most high, while the others, even though they may worship Allah or believe they worship him, have divided their worship, their intention, their love and their lives between Allah and other than Allah. If only they knew that Allah accepts no such division and no such partnership. If only they knew of the serious consequences they will face when they stand before Allah and the punishment which awaits them for sharing worship between Allah and false objects of worship and devotion – on the day when it becomes clear that all power and all authority is Allah’s, and Allah’s alone.
  166. On that day (the day of recompense), those leaders who led others astray will attempt to declare their innocence of those who followed them. But all of them will see the punishment before them, and there will be no further relationship or connection between them.
  167. And those who followed them (in this life) to misguidance will say, “If only we could be returned to our lives long enough to disavow these leaders as they have disavowed us today.” Thus, Allah shows them their own actions as great cause of regret. Moreover, these same actions have caused them to end up in a punishment from which they will never escape.
  168. Allah has placed at our disposal many good things in this earth. He has defined for us what is good, clean and lawful and what is bad, unclean and forbidden as being, respectively, what is beneficial and what is harmful. So, follow the guidance Allah has given you with regard to things you use and consume in this world. Do not follow the devil in either of two transgressions: either 1) declaring something to be forbidden in general or at certain times or places or to certain individuals with no authority from Allah or, 2) declaring something to be lawful or allowing yourself and others to engage in it even though Allah has forbidden it.
  169. Allah tells us here that our sworn enemy, Iblîs or the devil, spares no effort to get us to do three things: 1) evil, a general word for all bad acts, 2) obscenity, another word for sin but denotes sins which are particularly heinous, and 3) to say about Allah that of which we have no knowledge. This last category includes falsely claiming things to be lawful or forbidden when they are the opposite or matters which are even more serious: speculation or myth about Allah which are made up by people without any authority from Allah or basis in his divine communications to mankind. Allah is of the “unseen” reality which we have no ability to know anything about directly with our senses, our intellectual or spiritual efforts or any other means. All that we know about Allah and all other “unseen” matters (such as Paradise and Hell, etc.) is that which has been brought to us by his messenger. The scholars of the Qur’ân have pointed out that the three things (enjoined by the devil) are mentioned in ascending order with regard to their sinfulness and their evil effect and consequences. The second word for sins “obscenity” is much stronger than the first “evil”, and speaking about Allah without knowledge is far worse than either of the first two.
  170. And when the messengers and the believers counsel those who are astray saying, “Follow the guidance which Allah has sent down.” Those who are astray stubbornly cling to blind following of their disbelieving ancestors saying, “We will not follow your way but will continue on the way upon which we found our forefathers.” Do they just follow the ways of their ancestors even if those ancestors had no guidance or understanding, and even though the best guidance has come to them from Allah?
  171. The analogy here is regarding the rejecters and those attempting to call them to guidance. They are compared to animals, such as sheep or goats, because the Arabic word translated here as “yell out a warning” refers to sounds a shepherd makes to direct his animals. The shepherd shouts things to them to guide them away from what will harm them or toward what will benefit them. They hear his voice and his intonation, but do not comprehend its meaning beyond that. This is similar to those who follow religions, sects, cults or charismatic leaders on a purely emotional basis. They really do not understand much of what is being said, let alone analyze it critically. Rather, they are just pulled in by the emotion involved. Allah tells us in the Qur’ân to think and ponder and to be analytical and critical. See [Surahs An-Nisâ’ (Women): 82, Muhammad (The Prophet Muhammad): 24, Adh-Dhâriyât: 20-21. We need to understand Allah’s final message thoroughly with our minds, and understand its meaning. This in turn will make our hearts focused and dedicated in worshipping our one and only lord. Emotion or blind faith, devoid of understanding, is akin to the sheep reacting to the voice of the shepherd but without understanding the meaning of what he actually said.
  172. Believers should eat and enjoy the delicious foodstuffs which Allah has placed for us in our world and made lawful for us. We must avoid both paths of error or disbelief in this area. Some negate belief by creating taboos: making unlawful that which Allah has made lawful for this slaves. In doing this, they not only deny the supreme wisdom of the creator in what he has made lawful and unlawful for us, but they also introduce hardships into religion which are not part of it. Others seek to make lawful what Allah has forbidden. This of course also denies the wisdom of the creator in enacting his laws and also exposes those who follow their ways to the harm of these forbidden things and losing the benefit of the lawful things – whether such harms and benefits are known or unknown – because Allah does not forbid or allow anything for his slaves except according to their best interests. Unlike any other lawgiver, Allah has no possible harm or benefit from any of these issues and has no vested interest in them. His laws and commands are based solely on what is best for mankind and his pure mercy upon his slaves (though we may not always be able to see, in the short run, how this may be). For all of these things, the believer should show his gratitude to Allah with his heart, his tongue and all of his actions.
  173. There are so many things in Allah’s creation that we can consume and enjoy and which are perfectly lawful for us. All of the vegetables and grains are lawful. Every creature or plant which lives in salt water seas or oceans or freshwater lakes or streams is also lawful to be eaten. Allah mentions here that he has only forbidden dead animals (this includes animals found dead and animals not slaughtered properly), blood which flows from the animal, swine flesh and anything which was dedicated to other than Allah. Subsequent to the communication of this verse, the Prophet announced the prohibition of donkey meat. This proves that the Prophet’s teachings and directives are an independent source of law in addition to the Qur’ân. To leave no doubt, the Prophet said explicitly after informing the Muslims of the prohibition:“…Verily, whatever Allah’s messenger forbids is like what Allah forbids.”[Related by Ahmad]But none of these prohibitions mean that a believer would have to starve if there was nothing else available. Allah allows one in such a position to eat what they need to maintain life until they can obtain lawful sustenance and there is no sin upon them in eating what they need to preserve life.
  174. Concealing knowledge in a way which leads others astray or blocks them from guidance is a huge transgression against Allah and against your fellow man. Even if you are paid to conceal what you know, that material “gain” will be nothing but something akin to the fires of Hell being in your stomach which consumed those illicit gains. Then, Allah mentions the harshest position he takes with anyone which awaits those who commit such a sin: he will not even speak to them on the day of reckoning. Any soul would prefer the worst of Allah’s punishment to this – being completely ignored by Allah. And, he will not cleanse them of their sins or open any additional opportunity for repentance – as repentance ended upon his death in this world. There is nothing for them but a painful punishment.
  175. Those whose actions are described in the previous verses are the ones who have given up the way of guidance in exchange for the way of going astray and have denied themselves Allah’s acceptance and forgiveness, bringing upon themselves his wrath and his punishment instead. How amazing is their perseverance and their consistency in committing the deeds and actions which will lead to their eternal punishment in the fire, in spite of its dire consequences. This is the way of those in perpetual rebellion and rejection of the truth. They have either 1) lost hope in the infinite mercy and forgiveness of Allah, or 2) failed to realize Allah’s complete justice and that he recompenses all deeds in the hereafter – or maybe a mixture of both cases, or 3) they have just lost consciousness of their creator and the reality of their existence altogether. In all three cases, the innate nature of knowing Allah and knowing what is good from evil is still within them to some extent. There is still a part of them that knows they are on a wrong path, but they are not willing to control or correct themselves. An example of the first group are those who say, “I am going to end up in Hell, so why try to change anyhow?” The second group are those who say, “I believe Allah is loving and he will forgive everything, so whatever I do to myself or others will be overlooked and I will be forgiven.” The third group are those who say, “These are nothing but ancient fables. We are just organisms. We live for a while and then we die and that is all.” All of these errors can lead one completely astray and into evil and a dismal end, which is an appropriate recompense for the dismal path of misguidance that they followed in this life.
  176. The disastrous situation of these rebellious ones who persist in following one of the paths to [their deserving of] Allah’s wrath and punishment as their final destination is all because of their rejection of what Allah has communicated to mankind through the long series of prophets, messengers and books. These divine communications contained all the truth needed for success. Some people totally rejected divine communication to mankind outright. Others claimed to believe in a previous book, but that is a book that has since been superseded by a subsequent message from Allah, which they rejected. Still others accept some of the message of the current messenger from Allah, but refuse to accept what does not suit their desires, their inclinations or their “intellect”. Thus, both the second and the third group “accept some but reject some”. When groups cling to what they have and obsess in their opposition to all else, truth and guidance is the first victim. The Christians and Jews both had in their possession some truth mixed with some falsehood. Allah’s new message was intact and so the Muslims had truth unmixed with falsehood. All three opposed each other. It is the nature of such opposition that those with a mix of truth and falsehood will be driven by their opposition to the “other” to reject some of what the other has even though it is truth while affirming some of what they have even though it is falsehood. The ability to look at things on their own merit becomes lost. The same dangers lurk in our relations with our fellow Muslims if we allow ourselves to beome divided over interpretations or small differences in understanding. This is why the Prophet stressed avoiding differences and partisanship. He warned us that just as the earlier nations divided into opposing sects and groups, so will many of the Muslims. And all of these opposing groups will be incorrect except one. The Prophet informed us that the one successful group will be those who hold firm to the way of the Prophet, his companions and immediate successors and refer anything in which there is disagreement to the immutable sources: Allah’s book and the teachings of his Prophet.
  177. In this verse, Allah warns us against mistaking form for substance. In every message to mankind, Allah required various rituals and practices such as facing a particular direction in prayer and other such things. Without doubt, to be obedient to Allah we must practice all such things exactly as we have been ordered to do. But this is the “form” of the way Allah commanded us to live. While we cannot neglect and make light of any of what Allah has ordered us to do, we must not lose track of the substance or the reality of the correct way to live as a believer in Allah which is behind it. The only purpose of the “form” of the divinely-ordained life is to foster and reinforce the substance or fruit of that way of life, which is the real point of every divine message to mankind: to raise the state of human individuals and societies to a higher and better level. The rest of the verse describes this substance or the content of the divine message. The content of this religion is in two general categories:1) beliefs, convictions and knowledge of the realities we cannot see but of which Allah has informed us and 2) actions – both personal and our interactions with others and society – which reflect the state of one’s belief in Allah and in everything he commanded or legislated. This means that we should believe in Allah as the only one worthy of being worshipped and that there is no division with any partner therein. We also believe in the day of resurrection and recompense and in all of the angels. Moreover, we believe in all of the books communicated to mankind from Allah, and in all of the messengers, without making any distinction between them. Then, we should give of our wealth willingly, in spite of our instinctive love for it, to relatives in need, orphans who have no one to help them, anyone suffering from poverty and need, travelers who have fallen upon difficulties while far from their homes and property and those who are forced by need to ask for assistance. A society which does not take care of such or shield them from harm and hardship, but leaves them to fend for themselves, suffer and even die without help, is not an Islamic society. Any “belief” or practice such societies may have of Islam would be superficial and would be nothing but form devoid of substance, and this is not what Allah intended with his final message. The true believers sacrifice some of their wealth to set slaves or prisoners free. And they maintain the prayer, render the Zakâh (annual mandatory charity) required of them without any hesitation. They fulfill all of their promises and contractual obligations. Also, they are patient in the face of any adversity such as poverty, illness or difficulties of war. Those who maintain all of these characteristics are the ones who are truthful in their belief. They are the ones who guard themselves from Allah’s displeasure and punishment by their obedience and their avoidance of sin and wrongdoing.
  178. First, Allah’s statement: {…retaliation is prescribed for you for those murdered…} rejects a tradition which existed between the two Jewish tribes in Al-Madînah; Banû Qurayzah and Banû An-Nadîr. The former deemed themselves superior to the latter. So, if one of them killed anyone from the other tribe, no death penalty was imposed, but if someone from Banû An-Nadîr killed someone from Banû Qurayzah, it was imposed. This verse rejected this tribalistic inequality and asserted the principle of equality in applying punishment on the guilty.Second, Allah’s statement {…a free man for a free man, a slave for a slave, a female for a female …} rejects what two Arab tribes used to do. There was a long war between them in which many men, women and slaves were killed. As in the previous case, one of these tribes considered themselves superior and stronger than the other. They insisted that they would not be satisfied until there was inequality in revenge. So for one of their slaves who had been killed, they would insist on a free man from the other tribe being killed, etc. Therefore, concerning both this and the previous case, Allah’s order ruled out any concept of racial or national superiority or privilege in the implementation of any ruling of the Sharî’ah, and required complete equality before the law. Of course, the final ruling in the matter at hand is that only the murderer may be punished and so this verse itself was abrogated by verse 45 of surah Al-Mâ’idah which asserts “a soul for a soul”, meaning that the only one punished for a murder is the one who committed it. Tribal vengeance killings – whether “equal” or not – by which tribal feuds continued for generations and even escalated, were forbidden forever.
  179. Allah tells us that in the legislation of Qisâs (death penalty for murder) there is ultimate wisdom and the preservation of life. This is because when it is implemented and implemented fairly, correctly and with justice, any potential killer, or one to whom the temptation to kill presents itself, will be restrained by the knowledge that he himself will be subsequently killed. So, while the death penalty for murder in itself appears to be “death” in terms of the execution, in the greater scheme of things it is none other than an increase in life and a protection of it. Allah states something about the wisdom of this saying {…O wise people, that you may safeguard yourselves} meaning that people of sound intelligence will understand the horrendous nature of this crime after knowing the appropriate punishment which Allah has legislated for it and will also be motivated to avoid completely all the crimes and misdeeds which Allah has forbidden. The meaning of the root word translated as “safeguarding yourself” is an all-encompassing word which means to take the greatest care to maintain every act of obedience and stay away from every form of evil, cruelty and sin. Its root meaning in the Arabic language means to guard or protect oneself as in shielding oneself from a blow. It did not clearly have any religious or spiritual connotation before the communication of the Qur’ân. Then, Allah began speaking about the “vigilant”, or those who “guard themselves” or actively “protect” themselves and, as the divine communication progressed, the believers came to understand what it meant in its new Islamic terminological meaning: to strive one’s utmost to guard against Allah’s displeasure and the possibility of his punishment by seeking every avenue of obedience and worship of Allah and by seeking to avoid every sinful act displeasing to Allah and anything which may lead to them. For this reason, translating it as “piety” does not do it justice. Taqwâ is a very active concept, meaning consciously seeking the means of doing good and pleasing Allah through action. “Piety”, on the other hand, is a more passive word and is distinctly in the spiritual or religious sphere; it has no similar underlying or original linguistic meaning similar to the word Taqwâ.
  180. Designating who is to receive which portions of one’s wealth before one’s death became obligatory as of the arrival of this verse. Subsequently, once the verses of inheritance were communicated, attempting to bequeath anything to anyone who has an assigned portion according to the Sharî’ah became forbidden. The portions assigned by Allah cannot be modified by any will or document. Making a will to other individuals, institutions or causes, and not one’s heirs, remains lawful but not obligatory and is restricted to at most one third of one’s total estate. The rest must be divided among the heirs and in the proportions legislated by Allah. Also, such a bequeathal must not constitute a legal trick which serves to change the shares Allah has set, thinking one is within the letter of the law. See note to verse 182 which follows.
  181. A person bequeathing some of his property in a will should do so in a way which is just and fair. However, if another party knows the wishes of the deceased but lies and bears false witness by claiming something else, the deceased is altogether innocent of what transpires. The sin of false witness and of an unjust distribution of the estate lies squarely on the one who gave the false testimony as to the wishes of the deceased. Allah knows not only all of our actions but also the intentions within our hearts and he will not hold any soul accountable for the deeds of another.
  182. On the other hand, if anyone is aware that the will as given by the testator contains a deviation from what is right on the part of the deceased, whether intentional or accidental, he may negotiate with the heirs to fix what is not right. This type of modification of the will is justified and there is no sin in it. An example might be a parent who favored one of his children over the others. So, while he has no control over their assigned shares, he may try to bequeath some of the one third, which he is allowed to designate to ones who are not heirs, to an infant child of a favored child of his, even though the other siblings also have children. This is clearly a thinly disguised attempt to circumvent the shares which Allah has set and a legal “trick”. If one knows about such a matter, and was unable to convince the deceased to be just, he should negotiate with the heirs to correct what was done against the law.
  183. Fasting is an integral and important part of Islam. Fasting the month of Ramadân is obligatory upon all Muslims (except in cases of illness and other conditions specified by Allah). Allah’s final message to mankind is not the first one to contain this important element of religion as it was also ordained in previous divine messages. The purpose of fasting is to promote piety and vigilance, improving and increasing one’s good deeds and character and helping one avoid bad deeds and bad character. Fasting is a protective barrier between the slave of Allah and disobedience and sin. And fasting is a powerful reminder or motivator to aspire to a higher level of goodness, kindness and worship.
  184. When the fast of Ramadân was first prescribed, this verse provided an option for any who did not find the fast easy to give charity equal to feeding one person for each day in lieu of fasting. This general permission was abrogated for the physically fit resident by the next verse when Allah said, {“…So, whoever among you is resident during the month should fast it…”}. Permission to not fast (and only make up the day later) remained in place for those travelling and the sick. And the charity in lieu of missing a day of fasting remained in place for one who could not fast and could not make it up in the future, such as the very old or terminally ill.
  185. Allah praises the month of Ramadân over the other months of the year. This is because he chose it to be the month in which the Qur’ân would be sent down. It is the month in which the various divine books were communicated to Allah’s messengers. In this regard, the Prophet said:“The Suhuf was sent down to Ibrâhîm on the first day of Ramadân. The Torah (the book given to Mûsâ) was sent down six days into Ramadân. The Injîl (the book given to `Îsâ, son of Maryam) was sent down 13 days into Ramadân, and Allah sent down the Qur’ân after 24 days of Ramadân had passed.”[Related by Ahmad]As for the Suhuf, the Torah, the Zabûr (the book given to Dâwûd), and the Injîl, each of these were sent down to their respective messengers all at once and in their entirety. But as for the Qur’ân, it was sent down in its entirety to “The House of Might” which is in the lowest heaven and that was during Ramadhan on the Night of Decree…” (The Night of Decree occurs each Ramadân in one of the odd-numbered nights of the last ten nights of Ramadân). After that, Jibrîl brought the verses and chapters of the Qur’ân to the prophet Muhammad on earth piece by piece in response to events and to the growth and development of the Muslims. This continued to occur over a period of 23 years. So the verses which refer to the Qur’ân being sent down in Ramadân or on a night in Ramadân do not refer to it being sent down to the earth, but rather being sent down from the presence of Allah to this special place in the lowest heaven from where the delivery of Allah’s final message to mankind, which spanned over 23 years, began.
  186. It is narrated that a bedouin once asked the Prophet:“O Messenger of Allah, is our lord close so we can converse with him or distant so we (need to) call out to him?”[Related by Ibn Abû Hâtim]Others asked if there was a special time they needed to call on Allah in prayer. Allah informed us in this verse that in terms of hearing our pleas, Allah is very close indeed and any time a slave of Allah beseeches him sincerely with his or her needs, Allah hears everything and is right there to respond to the call of his slave. So in light of this, we should respond to every call of Allah found in his final message to mankind with unconditional obedience in order to be guided to all that is right. These concepts are related because there are several sins or states for which we have been informed that Allah does not answer the entreaties of his slave. These include: 1) a ruler who is lying to his people, 2) anyone who consumes alcohol – and for 40 days thereafter, 3) one who has gained wealth in an unlawful way and then fed and clothed himself with the illicit funds, and others. Thus, to maintain hope of Allah answering our prayers and our needs, we need to be determined/careful to fulfill every obligation with which Allah commands us and to avoid every evil which Allah forbids us.
  187. This verse is a permission for husbands and wives to have intimate relations during the night of Ramadân. Allah describes the two spouses as each other’s “clothing”. This was a known expression among the Arabs for the loving and close relationship between husband and wife. There are many ways this analogy is fitting. The spouses are a source of comfort to one another. They also support one another and hide each other’s faults. The context here is that husband and wife are very close. They mingle with and touch one another and also sleep together. Therefore it is befitting that this permission for intimate relations after the hours of fasting are over is given so there would be no hardship on the husband or the wife. This permission from Allah was a relief from the initial ruling, which was that food and marital relations could be indulged in beginning at sunset, but the permission ended as soon as one fell asleep or the night prayer begins (which is less than 2 hours after that) whichever comes first. This was very difficult so Allah made it easier with this verse. Allah’s command to “seek whatever Allah has written for you” is a reference to pregnancy and children which may result, thereby removing any ambiguity as to what is meant by “intimacy”.
  188. Allah warns us against ever acquiring wealth by any illegitimate means. Even if we successfully deceive our fellow human beings or get our scam past those who administer the law by fooling, bribing or intimidating them, none of it gets past Allah. All forbidden means of acquiring wealth, such as bearing false witness, theft, intimidation, bribery or dealing in interest fall under this prohibition. Allah also warns us about the dangers of collusion between the wealthy and the rulers to deprive ordinary people of what is rightfully theirs. Although this surely did not exist during the time the Qur’ân was being communicated – when the ruler was also Allah’s final messenger to mankind – it is something that has plagued nearly all human societies until today and is in need of attention from any who seek to raise the level of justice and equity of society. In an Islamic society, the wealthiest person should have no additional standing or influence with the authorities before the law than the most deprived and powerless in the land. All must be equal before the law.
  189. Some of the Companions asked about the moon and its phases. Why did Allah create them? Do they have some meaning or influence on our lives (as many of the ignorant folk have believed in various times and places)? Allah sent the answer through his messenger that their purpose is for knowing the times for certain acts of worship, notably fasting the month of Ramadân and performing the Pilgrimage to Makkah. The appearance of the new crescent moon is the only legitimate means of knowing the dates of these. Prior to Islam and in its early days, the people retained some customs regarding certain times when houses should be entered from their back doors, which usually meant jumping over a wall. One example was someone who intended to travel but then changed his mind and decided to return and remain home. Another case was once a person had entered the state of Ihrâm for minor or major pilgrimage he would enter from the back door. They falsely believed this was something pleasing to Allah. But Allah negated that and informed us that there is no righteousness in this invented ritual. Rather, righteousness means performing the deeds of those who truly and reverently fear Allah, guarding themselves from falling into evil and who are conscious of Allah in all their actions and are fastidious in remaining obedient to him in order to succeed in every way in this life and the hereafter.
  190. Allah commands the believers to fight in the path of Allah against those who attack them, but while doing so they must never engage in any violation of the rulings of Jihâd, such as mutilating the dead enemy, stealing from the spoils or killing anyone whose killing is forbidden such as women, children, the elderly and others of similar non-combatant status. Allah surely does not love those who transgress his boundaries seeking to make lawful what Allah and his messenger have forbidden.
  191. This is the first verse to be communicated after the migration to Al-Madînah regarding defense related issues. Human life is protected in Islam and it is never lawful to take any human life unless there is a specific dispensation to do so in the law. In this verse, Allah informs the believers that when a people intend and actually make war against Islam and Muslims, this is a state of war and so the prohibition against taking any human life does not apply (to combatants). Once an enemy is in active warfare against the Muslims, then the killing of their fighters is lawful wherever they are found. And the Muslims were authorized to expel disbelievers from the lands, houses, etc. from which the rejecters had previously exiled the Muslims (in Makkah), to undo the injustice which had been committed. Prior to this, Muslims had never been ordered or allowed to kill anyone. Rather, they had endured abuse, torture, exile and even death for their belief without putting up any resistance. With this and similar verses, the Muslim entity moved to its next stage. Aggression would be met with resistance instead of passive suffering. To encourage the Muslims to accept this new reality, Allah reminds us that the Fitnah (i.e. persecution and oppression) of those at war against belief, and their oppression, torture, murder, theft and attempts to block people as much as they can from accepting the truth, is ultimately more harmful and a greater evil than the evils of war and having to kill another human being. But, the sacred mosque in Makkah has a special status and introducing warfare into its precincts must be avoided as much as possible. The only exception is if the enemy attacks first in Makkah. In that case, their attack must be repelled.
  192. On the other hand, if they desist from making war against Islam and Muslims (or from doing so in Makkah, in particular) and accept the truth of Islam, surely Allah is the most forgiving of his creation and has the greatest mercy for them. It is not lawful for Muslims to bear any grudge for past wrongs once they have been stopped or to commit any aggression against any party which is neither waging war against Islam and Muslims nor oppressing the Muslims in their midst. It is never lawful in Islam to wage war against anyone only because they are not Muslim.
  193. Opposing those who make war against Islam and Muslims must continue until there is no more Fitnah and no more aggression directed against Muslims or suppression of their call to Allah such that it can be proclaimed without any interference or suppression. And, in the vicinity of Makkah specifically – the center and heartland of the Islamic nation – until all idolatry is eradicated and worship is solely for Allah, the one and only creator and lord of all. If they refrain from all of this and from fighting and harming the believers, then the believers must also cease any enmity toward them and respect their life and rights, as all human life and rights must be respected by believers. Harm may only be directed toward those who continue in their ways of idolatry (in the region of Makkah specifically), and in their opposition to the truth and their brutality directed at the believers (anywhere).
  194. Since the time that Ibrâhîm (Abraham) established monotheism in Arabia and left his son Ismâ`îl in Makkah, Allah had declared four of the months in the lunar calendar “forbidden”. They are Rajab (the 7th month of the year), Dhul-Qi’dah (the 11th month), Dhul-Hijjah (the 12th month) and Muharram (the 1st month). Warfare was not allowed during these months. This earlier divine law was ratified and confirmed by Allah’s final law given to Muhammad. He would not engage in fighting during those months unless he was attacked and if he was on a military expedition, he would withdraw until the forbidden months had passed. Six years after the migration to Al-Madînah, the Prophet set out with his companions to make the pilgrimage. In spite of this being during the forbidden months, the pagans stopped them by force and at one point it was believed that they had murdered his close companion `Uthmân Ibn `Affân, who had been sent to negotiate terms with those in Makkah. At that point, the Muslims swore an oath to fight the pagans. When it was discovered that `Uthmân had not been killed, they resorted to negotiation instead. One of the terms was that they would not make the pilgrimage that year but would return the following year, when they would be allowed to stay for three days. When that happened the following year, the pagans of Makkah left their town while the Muslims performed the pilgrimage. This was the recompense for the Muslims being forcibly kept out the previous year and being frustrated in their attempt to perform the pilgrimage in the same month of the previous year.
  195. Allah commands the believers to continue to make sacrifices including spending some of their wealth to support the divine message and struggling and even fighting in its path when needed. And that they should not bring about their own downfall and destruction by failing to do so. All actions, including struggling and giving from one’s wealth, must be done in the best manner and with sincerity of intention for Allah. Allah loves those who are sincere and righteous in word and deed.
  196. Once you enter the state of Ihrâm for pilgrimage, you are bound to complete it. If you are prevented by aggression, illness or any other cause, then you should sacrifice an animal. Once you do that, you may come out of Ihrâm and shave (or shorten) your hair. If not blocked from reaching Makkah, you cannot do those things until you reach its environs and complete your rituals. But it is permitted to shave one’s head before completing the rituals in case it is required due to an illness or scalp problem. In that case, you must compensate with one of three things: 1) fasting three days, 2) feeding six needy people or 3) sacrificing an animal for the needy in the area of Makkah. For the other case of coming out of Ihram before completing the rituals, i.e. if you transition from minor pilgrimage to major pilgrimage – by coming out of Ihrâm between the two – then you should sacrifice an animal. If you are unable, then you are required to fast three days during the pilgrimage and seven more after you return home. This is for those not resident in the environs of Makkah. And always be careful of your duty to Allah and his boundaries and mindful that his punishment is severe.
  197. The time of the [major] Pilgrimage is during fixed months in the lunar calendar. They are Shawwâl (10), Dhul-Qi’dah (11) and the first ten days of Dhul-Hijjah (12). So, if you decide to commit yourself to the pilgrimage by entering into Ihrâm during this time, know that once you do so certain things become forbidden. You cannot engage in intimacy with your spouses. You cannot stray from obedience to Allah by committing any sins. You cannot engage in argument that leads to anger and bitterness. And Allah is fully aware of any good you do at any time and will reward each according to their efforts. When you set out on the journey to the pilgrimage, take adequate provision with you: food and drink for the journey to Makkah, and all the good deeds you can as a form of provision for your eventual journey to the hereafter. The best provision of all is awareness and mindfulness of Allah in all things.
  198. With the coming of Islam, the Muslims were doubtful about the lawfulness of engaging in business during the pilgrimage. In answer to this, Allah communicated this verse. There is no sin and it does not detract from one’s pilgrimage to engage in business during those days. Then when the pilgrims descend en masse from `Arafât to Muzdalifah (on the way back to Minâ), they should spend this time in remembrance and making mention of Allah the most high and especially taking time to remember how Allah guided them to the truth from their state of being lost and ignorant of the truth.
  199. When Ibrâhîm established the pilgrimage, it included standing at `Arafât followed by returning to Minâ via Muzdalifah. Before Allah’s last prophet, the pagans of Makkah had innovated exclusively for themselves to go only as far as Muzdalifah, and to never reach `Arafât. The rest of the Arabs continued with the original pilgrimage which included the area of `Arafât. The pagans of Makkah thought this gave them a special status and it put them ahead of the crowd when returning to Minâ. Allah banned this practice and restored the pilgrimage to its original form, being the same for all participants
  200. When you have finished all the required rituals of the Pilgrimage, remember Allah much and praise him. Praise Allah as you were accustomed to mentioning the glory of your ancestors – and much more than that. In the dark period of ignorance prior to the commissioning of Muhammad, the Arabs used to stand in the latter part of the pilgrimage and make mention of the good deeds and glorious things done by their parents, their tribe and their ancestors. Allah replaced this with remembrance of him. Some people have ambition only for this life and their prayer to Allah is only to grant them life, health, wealth and children in this world. Such will have no share in the hereafter because they didn’t attach importance to it and they limited their ambition to this material world.
  201. But others cry out to Allah to grant them something good in this life and something good in the hereafter and to shield them from the punishment of the fire. In this life, they ask for health (to be able to worship Allah), lawful sustenance, beneficial knowledge, the success to perform good deeds and all else that is good in both this life and the hereafter. The supplication in this verse is a very comprehensive prayer and was one of the most frequent supplications made by Allah’s messenger.
  202. Those whose focus is on Allah and the hereafter will receive a great reward for the good deeds they have done. Allah is quick to take account, fully aware of the actions of all of his slaves and he is the only one that will reward them accordingly.
  203. After standing on the mount of `Arafât on the ninth day of Dhul-Hijjah, moving after sunset back to Muzdalifah, spending the night at Muzdalifah, and then returning to Minâ for the day of sacrifice on the tenth (which is the `Îd Al-Adhâ holiday for those not on the pilgrimage), the pilgrims are to stay at Minâ remembering and praising Allah for either two or three days. The point is to spend time in devotion to Allah and there is no sin on anyone if he chooses to remain in Minâ for either two days or three days. On each of these days, the pilgrim goes to cast pebbles at the stones which mark the spot where Shaytân tried to tempt Ibrâhîm to disobey Allah, and where the great prophet Ibrâhîm (Abraham) repelled him with stones. The pilgrims throw seven pebbles at each of these markers in commemoration of that event and that great prophet of Allah. So, the pilgrim may depart after doing this ritual on the eleventh and the twelfth day of the month or stay another day and do it a third time on the thirteenth day of the month. If this massive gathering seems overwhelming, we should remember the day when all of humanity from the first to the last will be gathered on a single plain before Allah.
  204. This verse makes mention of the hypocrites. These are individuals who appear to be among the Muslims; they practice what Muslims practice and claim to believe in what they believe. However, their internal reality is other than what their external appearance and actions would suggest. According to the normal understanding of hypocrisy, the hypocrites know full well that they are engaging in falsehood and are deceiving others. But looking at Allah’s descriptions of [what we are translating as] a “hypocrite”, we find that there are in fact two distinct types – or perhaps they are “stages” – of hypocrites referred to in Allah’s book. The first type sets out to intentionally deceive others that they are believers for some worldly gain or other motives. The second type – or perhaps it is a second “stage” of the same sickness – is not even aware of the lie they perpetuate. They believe themselves to be among the best of the Muslims and perhaps even better than the mass of Muslims or they believe themselves to be the “saviors” of Islam who have come to reform and improve Islam itself. In reality, they themselves have been deceived and worse: they have lost their self-awareness and have basically fallen into their own web of deception. Due to this deluded “sincerity”, wherein they have become convinced that they are doing the right thing, they can be very polished and impressive in their manner, in their speaking and in convincing others of their sincerity. Also, since they have joined the forces of evil – the head of which is Iblîs (Satan) and his legions of devils – they are now aided in their work and inspired with more and more ways to deceive and beguile with word and deed. This covert aid from the evil ones among the jinn (a creation we cannot see) and their allies among people is mentioned in surah [Al-An`âm (Cattle): 112].
  205. In spite of the impressive show of sincerity, concern and the best of intentions on the part of the hypocrites, no sooner have they turned and left your presence but they are a potent force for destruction of society and of its production, wealth and well-being. Allah does not love for such affairs to be corrupted and interrupted to the detriment of his slaves in this way.
  206. And when one of the hypocrites is urged to be careful not to displease Allah (literally: guard yourself from Allah), they are overtaken by rage and sinful pride and arrogance. For the first category of hypocrites (those who know they are lying), instead of taking the phrase “fear Allah” (i.e. be careful not to displease him) as a healthy and helpful reminder from a fellow believer, they fear that they have been discovered and are being called out and exposed. see [surah Al-Munâfiqûn (The Hypocrites): 4]. For the second category (those who have lost their self-awareness) – who, as previously mentioned, believe they are not only believers but the best and most “advanced” of the believers, they take it as an insult as if an inferior one (the humble believer) is telling a superior one (the bold and sincere reformer, who only seeks to “improve” Islam) to reform himself first. Hellfire will suffice both types. It is their appropriate end and what a terrible destination it is.
  207. Others are willing to dedicate everything and give everything – even their lives – for the acceptance and pleasure of Allah. They are ready to perform Jihâd and all forms of obedience to Allah. Accordingly, Allah is utterly compassionate with his slaves, merciful towards the believers with a mercy which encompasses their immediate state all the way to the hereafter where Allah will reward them for their efforts and their sincerity in ways no living soul can even begin to imagine.
  208. Allah commands all who believe in Allah, the sole creator and lord, and in Muhammad, the messenger from Allah, to enter completely into the peace of surrender and submission to Allah (islâm), accepting every single truth and divine law brought by Muhammad from Allah and not neglecting, ignoring or failing to live by any of that, i.e. being completely submitted to Allah (which in Arabic is: islâm). In order to do this, we must avoid the suggestion and urging of the devils (human and otherwise) calling us to every form of disobedience to Allah or disbelief that they can manage to beguile us into. Those are the clear enemies and the ones of whom we must be wary lest great harm befall us in this life and the hereafter.
  209. As for anyone who deviates from the true way even after receiving the clearest explanations in the Qur’ân and the Sunnah (additional teachings from the Prophet), let them be aware that Allah is almighty, in control over all things and nothing escapes him. His wisdom is also perfect and manifest in each and every order, encouragement, discouragement or prohibition contained in his final message to mankind. Unlike any of his creation, Allah has no agenda, bias, vested interest, need or weakness. He puts everything exactly where it belongs and exactly in the way which is most beneficial to us, his creation.
  210. What do the rebellious, who comprehend Allah’s final message but nonetheless reject it, have to look forward to? They will see only Allah coming to them – in some manner appropriate to his perfection and omnipotence but which is beyond human comprehension – in the shadow of clouds so that he may judge between all with divine and complete justice. And the angels too will attend that day when final judgments are given. All matters in the universe return to Allah in the end.
  211. The Children of Isrâ’îl were given many prophets and books over the centuries. Their messages and teachings were clear and sufficient to guide them to the truth and to righteousness. But by and large, and eventually (and repeatedly), many of them rejected, turned their backs on the truth right before their eyes and even modified, twisted, destroyed or concealed the divine message in their possession thereby denying future generations access to the original message. Allah’s “good” which he bestows on his slaves is the guidance of how to lead a godly way of life – which is found in Allah’s messages delivered to mankind by his many messengers. To turn away from a divine message is a most heinous act. An even worse act is to distort, change or conceal that message, denying others the chance of guidance. The proof against anyone who does that is completely clear and no excuse can possibly justify such an action. Allah’s punishment is severe.
  212. To those who reject the oneness of Allah, the pleasures and possessions of this life are all that remain. That is the extent of their ambition during their lifetime because they have been denied the vision to see anything greater than that. Thus, they mock the believers who pursue the best in this life and the hereafter. The believers, those who fear their creator and are vigilant in restraining evil and promoting good, will be high above the rejecters (disbelievers) on the Day of Judgment. That is because Allah will admit the vigilant to the highest levels of Paradise and will cast the rejecters down into the deepest pits of hellfire. As for wealth and the other pleasures and commodities of this life, Allah is the one and only one who gives them to whomever he wishes and withholds them from whomever he wishes.

  213. Mankind was once a single group who all shared a common belief in Allah. Then they disagreed about religion, so Allah sent messenger after messenger to call the nations back to him. They all brought glad tidings of Paradise for those who chose to obey Allah and dire warnings about punishment in the fire for those who chose to reject and disobey. Allah sent the messengers with divine books containing messages for the nations. This was so they (and those who followed after them) could rule the people with the guidance Allah had given them and adjudicate the issues in which they disagreed using the truth and justice embodied in the messages which they had been sent. And those peoples who were given divine messages did not disagree regarding them until after they had been given that which should have guided and united them. But, they disputed and separated out of malice and transgression against each other. But Allah guided (and always guides) those who truly believed to the truth of the message in each of these areas of dispute. Allah guides whoever he wishes to the straight path.

  214. It is Allah’s consistent way or pattern that believing nations are tested with challenges, difficulties and adversity. This is a test of faith. No one should imagine that they are somehow “chosen” or “saved” and they will just live in ease until they go to Paradise without being tested. With the previous nations, these trials would become so difficult that even the prophets, not just the people to whom they were sent, would ask, “When will Allah help us?” But Allah’s help is always close. Once the companions of Prophet Muhammad asked him similarly to invoke Allah to bring peace and security by hastening the believers’ victory over those who wanted to destroy them. The Prophet mentioned to them several examples of the difficulties and torture faced by earlier generations of believers and then said:

    “By Allah, Allah will complete this matter (i.e. Islam) until a rider can travel from San`â’ (a city in the northwest of Yemen) to Hadramawt (a city in the southeast of Yemen) fearing nothing but Allah or a wolf lest it attacks his sheep – but you are a people who are impatient.”[Related by Al-Bukhârî]

  215. The Muslims had asked the Prophet regarding giving charity. What should they give for Allah’s sake? What types of property should they give and to whom? Allah answered in this verse that anything a Muslim gives from any kind of property which is lawful and clean is known by Allah and that he is the guarantor of its reward. As for recipients, Allah mentions your two parents, other relatives, orphans, any needy people whose resources do not meet their needs and travelers stranded in need, far from their families and their possessions.

  216. For more than half of the time of the Prophet’s mission, the Muslims were not allowed to fight those who committed violence against them. During the 13 years of the call in Makkah (Mecca), those who believed in the message suffered many forms of abuse, torture and even murder for their beliefs. At one point, the entire population of believers was subjected to starvation when the pagans of Makkah agreed to a complete social and economic blockade against them. They were forced to live in the wilderness and eat the leaves of trees. Some died of starvation and related illnesses. But the priority during these first thirteen years was to establish a strong foundation of faith and spread the message of monotheism. Later, when the geopolitical entity of Islam was established in Al-Madînah (Medina), to which the Muslims had fled from persecution in Makkah, the issue of defense – which is essential to any nation anywhere on earth – had to be addressed. War and fighting is something naturally disliked by humans. The Muslims had only focused on spiritual matters for many years. During Al-Madînah period, after the emigration from Makkah, Allah completed Islam as a comprehensive and viable entity able to survive in this world, by his permission first of all followed by the sincerity and action of the believers secondly. Although the pagans of Arabia were still conspiring to wipe out the Muslim settlement in Al-Madînah, for the moment at least they had a certain level of security and peace. But, while war is something disliked and difficult, it is also something that no nation on earth has ever survived for long without. So Allah – who knows everything while we know very little – here commands that Muslims will from this point on strike back at those who intend to harm them.

  217. This verse once more discusses the four months in which fighting has been forbidden since the time Prophet Ibrâhîm brought his son Ismâ`îl to Makkah, see [verse 194 of this surah]. The pagans asked the Prophet, “Is it now lawful to fight during the forbidden months?” Allah responded clarifying that fighting in the forbidden months is something abominable with Allah. Likewise, violating this ancient prohibition from Allah and spilling blood during those months is indeed abominable. But blocking people from entering Islam through torture and terrorism as well as rejection of Allah, his messenger and his call and then blocking the Muslims from entering the Sacred Mosque (at Makkah) and expelling the Messenger and the believers from Makkah, though it is their home town – all of that is much more sinful than fighting in the forbidden months. Also the paganism which you practice itself is a greater affront to Allah than fighting in the forbidden months. But these rejecters will never be turned back from their criminal ways and they will continue to fight you and commit crimes against you until they turn you back from the straight way, if they are able to do so. And if anyone among the believers succumbs to them, obeys them, abandons faith and then dies in that state, he will have nullified any good he/she may have done in this life, and the hereafter and they will become of those bound to the fire of Hell, never to come out therefrom.

  218. All those who believe in Allah and his messenger – and at the time of the sending of this verse (during Al-Madînah period, after the migration) – they can be defined as those who, in addition to accepting Allah’s final message, left their homeland (if they were not from the people of Al-Madînah) to join the nation of Islam at its newly-established capital and took part in the defense of this new entity, whether by actual fighting for those capable of doing so or by means of supportive roles or monetary contribution for those only able to help in this way. These have a bona fide reason to hope for the mercy of Allah, the most forgiving, the most merciful.

  219. Alcohol was something firmly engrained in the Arab culture and most other cultures of the time. This is the first of three verses on this subject. In this verse, Allah draws attention to the harm of both alcohol and gambling. Subsequently, in the second verse [An-Nisâ’ (Women): 43] Allah forbid being intoxicated at the time of any of the five prayers. Finally, in the third verse [Al-Mâ’idah (The Table): 91], Allah forbid intoxicants completely. Intoxicants and gambling have some benefit like pleasure and financial gain but exclusively for this life, however they also have much harm in both this life and the hereafter, like financial loss, poor health and disease and most of all being blocked and distracted from the remembrance and worship of Allah along with the burden of sin in the hereafter. Allah lets us know in this verse that the harm of alcohol and gambling far outweighs any benefit they may have. Because of the extreme harm of alcohol, and in spite of the possibility of some benefit, Allah has absolutely forbidden it and declared that abstaining from it completely is in our best interest. It is not acceptable for anyone, after Allah’s clear ruling on the matter, to attempt to analyze or rationalize the harm versus benefit in this particular case, seeking to find an exception to the general prohibition of alcohol. Allah states that we need to avoid it absolutely and no sound mind can ever doubt the wisdom of that ruling since Allah knows all about us, more than we know about ourselves. They also asked the Messenger about what they should spend in charity or in Allah’s cause. Allah answers that we should spend from that which is above and beyond our actual needs. Allah makes all things clear to us so that we may think for ourselves and use sound reasoning to understand what is useful for us and what is not.

  220. They also asked about orphans and about Allah’s rulings regarding them. Allah answered that anyone with orphans in their custody is required to look out for their best interests and safeguard any property (e.g., inheritance) they may have. And if their affairs are thoroughly intermingled with yours as a single family, then they are like your brothers – and a brother should always carefully watch out for the well-being and benefit of his brother. Whatever the arrangement and the details, Allah knows full well who are those who misappropriate the wealth of orphans for their own benefit versus those who are righteous and fastidious in safeguarding the interests of orphans. If Allah had wished, he could have made it more difficult for you by forbidding this kind of mixing of affairs and by requiring detailed bookkeeping for every small and large item regarding the orphans and their wealth which is in your custody.

  221. Allah does not allow Muslim men or Muslim women to marry any who worship others instead of or along with Allah. This takes precedence over all other ways in which people tend to assess a potential spouse, be it beauty, social status, wealth or family lineage. The faith of the potential spouse and that they believe in and worship the one and only creator of all things – Allah – and believe in all of Allah’s messengers to mankind is more important than all of these things. It is natural for spouses to have a heavy influence over each other. A believer will want to influence the other toward faith, Allah’s forgiveness and Paradise whereas a polytheist or other rejecter of Allah’s messages will be an influence toward that which guarantees an eternity in the fire of Hell. Allah reminds us of this fact of human nature so that we do not forget the importance of the hereafter, even in “worldly” decisions like selecting a spouse.

  222. The law of Mûsâ had very strict regulations regarding menses. The spouses had to sleep in separate beds the entire time and for some days afterward. Allah made it very easy in his final law, though the prohibition of marital relations during this time continued. But aside from that, the two spouses may still be close, sleeping together, etc. until the menses is over and the woman has cleansed herself. After that, they can have normal marital relations in any posture they wish.

  223. Allah hints at what exactly is allowed between husband and wife by referring to the wife as a “fertile ground”. That which can lead to procreation is lawful, no matter how it is done. And the two spouses should prepare the ground for a harmonious relationship with good deeds and being mindful of Allah’s boundaries and continuously being dutiful to him until we all stand before him on the day of recompense.

  224. If a Muslim makes a lawful oath that they will do or not do something but then finds that his oath is blocking him/her from a righteous deed, then it is preferable to break the oath and do what is best rather than sticking to the oath. For example, a person might swear an oath that they will not give charity to a certain individual ever again. But if later that person becomes in need and they have the means to help, it is preferable for them to break the oath and make an expiation for it in order to give the charity than to continue with their original intention. In fact, swearing any kind of oath about one’s future actions should be avoided, especially those of this nature.

  225. Allah does not hold anyone accountable for words which literally constitute an oath, but which were said without the intention of being an actual oath. Rather, Allah holds us accountable for oaths which we intended when we spoke them – even if we regret them later on. This is part of Allah’s mercy for his slaves.

  226. Intimate relations are a right of each spouse over the other. If a man for whatever reason cuts his wife off from such relations, he has a maximum of four months during which this state may continue. Beyond that, the wife has the right to sue him before a judge to either resume normal marital relations with her or divorce her.

  227. When a husband ceases intimacy with his wife, something is amiss. Perhaps he is just being cruel, acting as some people used to do before Islam. They would divorce a wife and so place her in the waiting period during which there are no intimate relations. Then, just before the waiting period is over, they would supposedly take them back as wives only to repeat the entire cycle again, in order to be cruel to them and to keep the wife permanently in a difficult position. Allah closed that door by limiting revocable divorce to only two times. In the previous verse, Allah discusses a husband who withdraws all affection from his wife but does not divorce her. Either he is trying to reproduce the cruel act of pre-Islamic ignorance, or there is a serious problem between the spouses but not bad enough for the husband to simply divorce her. Allah gives an ample cooling-off period to the husband, but without inflicting undue harm on the wife. He has four months to make up his mind. He is not allowed to leave her hanging between marriage and divorce. If, after four months, he is still not reconciled to be with her as a proper husband and resume intimacy, then it is not acceptable for this abnormal situation to continue any longer and he should proceed with divorce and allow her to get on with her life. Divorce is definitely allowed – and how cruel and unrealistic is any religion or system which does not allow it – but Allah puts every reasonable avenue for it to be avoided, if possible.

  228. Divorced women who have menstrual periods are required to remain unmarried for three complete menstrual periods following the divorce. This ensures that they are not pregnant by the husband who divorced them. It is not permissible for them to get married to any other man during this waiting period. Also, it is not permissible for them to conceal or falsify what is happening with their bodies during this time – whether concerning pregnancy or menses. The husband who divorced her has the right to revoke the divorce during this waiting period and return to married life, but he must do so with the sincere intention of reconciliation, not intending to harass his ex-wife by extending the period of waiting or by resuming the marriage contract without giving her all of her rights therein. Wives have rights over their husbands similar to their husband’s rights over them in the best and proper manner. Nonetheless, husbands have a slight rank over wives. Husbands must treat their wives with kindness and be companions to them, but at the same time they are the head of the household when a single head is needed, although mutual consultation is the way Islam demands as much as possible. They also have the responsibility to provide for all of their wife’s upkeep and material needs, though she has no such responsibility toward him, regardless of their respective financial conditions. Husbands have absolutely no right to any of their wife’s wealth or property. That includes the dowry he gave her, any wealth she owned before the marriage, anything she earns or inherits during their marriage or anything else which comes into her possession. Wives have an inalienable right to all of their essential needs to be supplied from her husband’s wealth or income. This is always the case, even if she is far wealthier than he is. There is no “community property” in Islam and each of the two spouses own their own wealth. Nothing is jointly owned unless they designate it as such of their own volition. Finally, husbands have the legal power to divorce by simply declaring it, while the wife ultimately has the same right, but she does so via a legal process if she is in need of ending the marriage. The judge may investigate to ensure that their differences cannot be reconciled, but ultimately any wife who insists on dissolution of her marriage must be accommodated.

  229. The divorce which is effective immediately (at which time the waiting period begins) can only be pronounced by the husband. It can also be revoked before the end of the waiting period by his word or deed. In this case, the existing marriage is reinstated and there is no need for a new marriage contract. Such a divorce can only be done twice. The waiting period is a chance for reconciliation. Allah’s ruling is that it ends in one of two ways; either the husband revokes his divorce before the end of the waiting period, returns to his wife in the proper manner and returns to being a good companion and to treating her with kindness, or he lets the divorce stand and refrains from any interference in her life, giving her all of her rights and also always refraining from speaking ill of her. When Muslim men marry, they pay some amount of property to their wives as a dowry. This can vary widely and could be a large sum of money. The basic ruling is that no matter how large the dowry may be and how short-lived the marriage was, the dowry is the property of the wife and any unpaid amounts are still owed to her even after the divorce. The husband has no right to any of it. There is an exception if it is feared they will not maintain the boundaries of Allah. In that case the matter can be arbitrated or adjudicated, and it is lawful for the wife to agree to forfeit some or all of the dowry and return it to the husband for the sake of avoiding conflict or ill-will. These are among Allah’s boundaries which separate right from wrong – and none transgress Allah’s boundaries but those who are unjust.

  230. So, if the husband divorces his wife for the final time – and that means either by pronouncing the third divorce after revoking two previous ones (with at least the second one before the end of the waiting period) or allowing the waiting period for a second revocable divorce to run out – then she cannot be his wife again under the law. The only way this could happen is if she marries another man with a true intention of marriage (not as a legal trick (Hîlah) to be able to return to her first husband), and that marriage is consummated, but then comes to an end through either divorce or the death of the second husband and her waiting period for that divorce passes. If and only if all of these conditions are met, it will become lawful for her to once again be married to her first husband.

  231. Allah instructs husbands that if they pronounce divorce of their wives, they should make their final decision before the waiting period has elapsed. They must decide either to return to them with a sincere intention to safeguard all of their rights, treat them with kindness and live with them in a correct and proper manner in every way according to law and custom, or to leave them in peace until the end of the waiting period at which time the marriage contract comes to an end. At that point, they should have nothing further to do with their ex-wives lives and should not interfere with them or harass them in any way. If any of his children remain in her care, he is responsible for the needs of those children. However, he has no further responsibility for his ex-wife’s economic needs as of the end of the waiting period. The duty to support her reverts to her family – her father if present and brothers or other male relatives if not. Failing all of that, it is the duty of the state to supply her needs. At every point in a female Muslim’s life, someone is responsible for her sustenance and needs. If a man revokes a divorce before it becomes final only for the purpose of inflicting more harm on his wife, then he is among those who play around with Allah’s most serious rulings and such people are truly oppressors. We should all remember the great favor of Allah upon us when he sent down to Muhammad the Qur’ân (Allah’s words) and the detailed teachings the Prophet delivered from Allah along with it and remember also to be conscious of Allah and vigilant regarding our own actions, never forgetting that Allah is fully aware of everything we do.

  232. When a man divorces his wife for the first or second time, he is the one who can reinstate the marriage (and undo the divorce he pronounced) at any time during the waiting period unilaterally by merely saying so. If intimate relations occur during this period, the marriage is automatically reinstated and the divorce nullified by that fact alone. The waiting period is three menstrual periods for a wife having menses, three lunar months for a wife who has no menses, or until giving birth for a wife who is pregnant. If the waiting period expires and the husband has not withdrawn the divorce, they are no longer husband and wife. If it was the second divorce (and the waiting period ended without retraction) or the third divorce (in which retraction is not possible), then they can never marry again unless she is married to another man and that marriage is consummated but then subsequently terminated by complete divorce or the like (dissolution by a judge, death of spouse, etc.) But if it is the second divorce (which is retracted before the end of the waiting period) or the first divorce (either retracted or left to terminate and followed by a new marriage contract), they can re-marry starting afresh with a new contract, dowry, etc. Thus, the matter reverts to her guardian. The first part of this verse is addressed to her guardian (usually her father) and family members that they must not make any attempt to block such a re-marriage because of any ill feelings they may have toward her former husband. As long as the two spouses have reached an understanding and both desire to return to their former married life, no one should stand in their way.

  233. Mothers should nurse their newborns for two complete years if they wish to complete the process of nursing. And even if they have divorced, the father of the child is responsible for her upkeep during the entire period of nursing in the appropriate manner according to law and custom. Also, should the husband pass away before the end of the nursing period, his heirs are responsible for her upkeep for the remainder of the period. The two parents must never use their children as a means of harming or hurting each other. The two year period is the complete nursing period and it is encouraged, but it is not mandatory. If the two parents, after consultation, and consideration of each other’s positions, feelings and conditions, decide to wean the child earlier, there is no harm or sin in that. Their first priority should be what is best for the child. Also, if they decide to use the services of a wet nurse (another woman to nurse the baby in place of the birth mother), there is no sin in that provided they pay in full whatever they have promised for this service. We should be careful of fulfilling our duty to Allah and be conscious of him in all that we do because we are accountable for all of our actions and will face their consequences.

  234. As for women whose husbands pass away while they are married (widows), their waiting period is four (lunar) months plus 10 days. They must stay unmarried during this period, and they should not move from the house where they lived with their husbands and they should not adorn themselves. Once this period is over, they can get on with their lives and there is no sin upon their guardians or family members if they return to beautifying themselves again and going out of their house in any manner which is proper and in accordance with the law.

  235. There is no sin upon the menfolk for making indirect hints or discussing their interest in marrying widows or women who have been completely divorced, even if such happens during the waiting period. Nor is there any sin for any intentions in your hearts regarding your desire to marry them after the waiting period is over. Allah knows that you will speak of such things and will not be able to wait silently due to your interest in them and your weaknesses and desires. For this reason, Allah allowed speaking of such things indirectly and allowed one to have such thoughts internally. But beware, it is not permissible to speak about such matters directly with such women during their waiting periods or to reach agreements with them regarding marriage before their waiting period is over. Such direct discussions and agreements can only occur after the waiting period is over.

  236. If a man marries a woman but he divorces her before consummating the marriage and the amount of the dowry was not set, he should give her something by way of provision, money, clothing or other forms of wealth. It is lawful in Islam for the marriage contract to be concluded without actually setting the dowry and leaving it “to be determined”. If the marriage is contracted and consummated but the dowry was not set and then he divorces her, he has to pay her the typical dowry that someone like her would receive in the particular time and place they live. If the dowry was agreed upon and the marriage was consummated the whole amount is owed to the wife no matter how soon after that he divorces her. So, in the case mentioned in this verse – where neither consummation has occurred nor has the dowry been set – he should give her a “provision”. No specific amount has been set for this but it should be something the husband is capable of according to his financial situation. Scholars differed as to whether this gift is obligatory or merely encouraged. At any rate, by describing it as: {…an obligation upon the doers of good…} Allah has clearly and very strongly suggested that it be done by those wishing for Allah’s pleasure and acceptance.

  237. This verse mentions the case where divorce occurs before any consummation of the marriage but after a dowry has been specified. In this case, what is owed to the woman is half of the amount agreed upon. But, Allah encourages both sides to consider being gracious. In the case of the husband, this means paying the entire amount although the marriage never came to fruition, while in the case of the wife, it means forgoing anything from the dowry (or returning it if already paid) and simply ending the marriage. Allah urges all of us not to forget to be gracious and kind to one another in all situations.

  238. Always be fastidious and consistent in performing the five obligatory prayers with all of their requirements and conditions particularly the “middle” prayer, which is the afternoon prayer because there are two prayers before it, Fajr (dawn) prayer and Zuhr (noon) prayer, and two after it, Maghrib (sunset) prayer and `Ishâ’ (night) prayer. In each and every prayer, the Muslim should stand before Allah in complete obedience and submission, while being conscious (of his obligations to Allah), and being in a state of total humility.

  239. If you fear imminent danger, for example in war, then you can perform the prayers walking or riding on animals. Then, when you are out of danger, perform the prayer just as you have been taught – which is something of which you had no knowledge prior to that.

  240. This verse, like verse 180 in this chapter, was abrogated by the verses which set the inheritance shares, [see explanation of verse 180]. Once the inheritance laws were communicated, it became forbidden to will anything to one’s wife in most cases since she is one of the heirs and it is not lawful to will anything to one who inherits a particular share of the estate according to the law (Sharî`ah).

  241. For further details, see verses 236 and 237 in this chapter and accompanying notes. It is unanimously agreed upon that if a man divorces a woman shortly after the marriage without consummating it and without agreeing on the amount of the dowry that he should give her some provision according to his ability as mentioned above. In a similar case (i.e., marriage followed by divorce without consummation) but when the dowry has been agreed upon, he must give her half of the agreed upon dowry unless the two of them agree on something else. If the marriage was consummated and the dowry had been agreed upon, he owes the entire dowry to the divorced wife, no matter how short-lived the marriage again barring any other agreement between the two parties. Finally, if the marriage was consummated but the dowry not set, he owes her the amount that someone like her would tend to receive in the time and place in which they live. As to all other cases of divorce, the scholars differed as to whether he must give her some provision (amount unspecified) after divorce and the waiting period – which is the apparent meaning of this verse at least in the case of death of the husband – or whether this verse is just a reference to the previously mentioned case where he was told to give her some provision after divorce. That previous case was the case of marriage followed by divorce where there was no consummation nor was the dowry set.

  242. Allah makes his signs and his perfect rulings regarding family relations, children, spouses, etc. clear for you in order that you may comprehend both the letter and the spirit of the laws, and so act upon them and live your life according to them. So, when Allah describes giving material support to an ex-wife at the time of divorce and says, “…an obligation upon the doers of good” or “…an obligation upon the vigilant (or conscientious)”, this is a clear incentive to do the generous and kind thing, the one most pleasing to Allah. But, by making it not completely explicit (hence the different opinions of the scholars), Allah does not force a single solution upon the many possible and varied scenarios that may occur. This is the great difference between divine and human laws. Since Allah knows all of our states and conditions, past, present and future, his law (Sharî`ah) is perfect and includes the needed flexibility to be applicable in all times, people and places until the end of time.

  243. This is the story of some people long ago among the Children of Isrâ’îl. Their land was afflicted by a terrible plague and they fled in their thousands in fear that death might be decreed for them. (Other narrations say that it might have been a battle that they were fleeing from). Allah gave the command and they all died instantly, as one person dies. This was a punishment for thinking that they could flee from Allah’s decree. Later, Allah resurrected them (some say in response to the prayer of one of the many prophets sent to the Children of Isrâ’îl) so that they could complete their lives and turn to Allah in repentance. Allah’s favors upon his creation are great indeed, but most fail to be grateful.

  244. This is an order to the Prophet and to all the Muslims with him and those to come after him to strenuously defend Islam against all who wish to attack and destroy it and to maintain its structure so that all mankind has a chance to be exposed to Allah’s final message to mankind and so be able to make an informed decision about which path they wish to follow.

  245. In addition to the mandatory acts of giving such as the annual Zakâh (2.5% of one’s savings and specified shares of herd animals and certain agricultural products) and Zakâtul-Fitr (a charity given at the end of Ramadân, the month of fasting), Muslims are strongly encouraged to give from their wealth to help deserving people and causes. All of this can be called spending “in the path of Allah”, but when used alone that phrase generally means spending to support and defend Islam, its homeland, state and institutions and support its call to all mankind to believe in Allah and all of his messages to mankind. In this verse, Allah describes all such spending which is done with a true and sincere intention as being a “beautiful loan”, and states that whoever gives such a beautiful loan will experience returns many times greater then what they have given. This return may happen materially in this life but more certainly in the hereafter in terms of a reward from Allah, which is greater than anything present or imaginable in this world. A Muslim should of course take care of his own needs and those he is responsible for, but beyond that he should not be fearful of giving nor think that it will lead to poverty. Here, Allah reminds us that all destinies to wealth or poverty, etc. are completely in Allah’s hands – the same Allah for whose sake the Muslim spends some of his/her wealth. In this vein, the Prophet once said:

    “I tell you these things and remember them well, I can swear by them, no one’s wealth diminishes by charity.”

    [Related by At-Tirmidhî]

  246. This is another story from the history of the Children of Isrâ’îl. The notables and leaders approached their prophet (who was not named in the verse) and requested that an angel be brought as their leader in order that they could overcome their differences, unite behind the angel and fight in Allah’s cause. Their prophet answered them by questioning the truthfulness of their claim that if an angel was sent to lead them, they would overcome their differences, and strive and fight in Allah’s path as one. Rather, their prophet predicted that if fighting was prescribed for them by Allah, they would not fulfill Allah’s order and would find a way not to submit themselves to such a divine order. They denied his allegation asking how any people could refuse to fight those who had attacked them when they were driven out of their land and separated from their families. In spite of their protestations, when Allah subsequently did command them to fight under the command of the king from among them who Allah appointed for the task (see next verse), the vast majority were cowardly, ran from the fight and failed to obey Allah’s order.

  247. The powerful among the people had requested that an angel be sent to unite them and lead them in battle against their enemies. Their prophet responded that Allah had appointed one of them, Tâlût, as their king who would lead them in battle. In their arrogance of class and blood ties, they questioned Allah’s decision, asking how Tâlût could possibly be their leader though he was not wealthy nor was he from the bloodlines they considered to be “royal”, or from the family of the prophets? Based on their ignorant criteria, they felt that any one of them was more appropriate to be king than the individual who Allah himself had appointed! Their prophet responded by reminding them that it is Allah himself who selected Tâlût, and that Allah had prepared him by strengthening his mind and his body for the task at hand. And he (their prophet) reminded them that political power, like everything else that transpires, is absolutely in Allah’s hands. He gives power to whomever he wills and denies it whoever he wills.

  248. Their prophet told them that the sign of Tâlût’s divine appointment would be that the long-lost ark would return to them. It was a wooden chest that contained the Torah which had previously been taken from them by an enemy. This would result in a great peace of mind and a strengthening of will for those who are sincere. Therein also were artifacts from the era of Mûsâ and his brother Hârûn, such as Mûsâ’s stick and parts of the tablets on which the Torah, which Mûsâ was given, was written. This was an ample sign that Tâlût had indeed been appointed by Allah himself as their leader and should have left no doubt in their minds if they truly believed in Allah.

  249. When Tâlût set out with his forces from the Children of Isrâ’îl to fight Jâlût (“Goliath” the giant), he announced to them that Allah was going to test their patience and obedience with a river ahead of them which they would cross. Allah would thereby distinguish the believers from the hypocrites. They were ordered not to drink from the river. So whoever disobeyed this order and drank from the river would not be qualified to be in Tâlût’s army and fight alongside him. However, those who refrained from drinking would go forward with Tâlût because they remained in obedience to Allah and were thus qualified to struggle in Allah’s path. Even so, there was a permission for those who took only a single handful from the river and drank it, and there would be no sin upon them. When they came to the river, most of them fell upon the water and drank to their fill. Only a small number remained in obedience to Allah in spite of their thirst, or at most limited themselves to the permitted single handful of water. The disobedient ones were left behind while Tâlût and only about 310 – 320 believers crossed the river and continued on their trek to face their enemy. When they realized how few they were compared to the great number of their enemy, some of them said that they had no power to face such a powerful enemy. Those truly conscious of Allah’s omnipotence and that they would eventually return to him reminded their brothers in faith that many small groups of believers had been victorious over much larger groups of disbelieving enemies by Allah’s permission as long as they were sincere and steadfast. Allah comes to the aid of believers who are patient.

  250. When they faced Jâlût and his forces and saw the danger before their eyes, they cried out to Allah, humbly praying to him to fill their hearts with patience and give them a firm foothold to take on this fearsome enemy without fleeing from the horrors of battle, and they also asked Allah to come to their aid and give them victory over the rejecters.

  251. After they defeated them, by Allah’s permission, and prophet Dâwûd (David) killed Jâlût (Goliath), the leader of the barbarians, Allah gave Dâwûd both prophethood and political authority (kingship) over the Children of Isrâ’îl, and imparted to him whatever knowledge he wished to give him. If it were not for Allah decreeing that people of obedience and belief would fight and repel people of disobedience and of worshipping others beside Allah, the entire earth would be corrupted by the dominance of false worship and the transgression against peoples’ rights. Allah’s compassion and favors upon us is greater than to allow that to happen.

  252. Allah sent Muhammad as his final messenger to mankind. His communications to Muhammad included two parts: the Qur’ân or literal words of Allah and also other teachings which came from Allah but were explained by Muhammad himself in his own words, which are called the Sunnah (prophetic traditions). In these two parts of the communication, Allah brought to us the clearest signs and proofs. Among these signs from which we gain great benefit and knowledge are the stories of the other nations who came before us and their prophets as well as their experiences and trials. By having these tales in Allah’s final communication we receive them with their accurate details, untainted by human bias or modification. These are the most accurate versions of these events and are the best account from which to understand the lessons to be learned from them.

  253. In the previous verses, Allah mentioned many of his prophets and messengers and some of their stories. Some are mentioned by name, while others are not. Allah has honored all of his prophets and messengers in different ways and to different degrees. All of them received direct communication (called Wahy in Arabic) from Allah. This happened by means of the angel Jibrîl (“Gabriel”), who delivered Allah’s communications to all of his prophets. Some of them were spoken to directly by Allah, such as Mûsâ and Muhammad, peace be upon them both. This proves beyond any doubt the divine attribute of speech – i.e. Allah speaks when and how he wills in a manner appropriate to his majesty, omnipotence and perfection. Some prophets have been elevated to higher degrees than others. Muhammad, Allah’s final messenger to mankind, was given several such distinguished honors. His message was the finality of Allah’s communications to mankind. It was the first and only divine message intended for all mankind – the previous prophets were all sent exclusively to their own nations. And there are other unique honors given to Muhammad which have been mentioned elsewhere. Allah also supported `Îsâ the son of Maryam in many ways. He helped him with miracles, such as allowing him to heal lepers and people who were blind from birth, and to bring a dead person back to life, all by Allah’s permission and power – `Îsâ was human and had no power to do any of this on his own. And Allah supported `Îsâ with his angel Jibrîl, the one responsible for bringing divine communication to the prophets. Nonetheless, the pattern of human history is such that no matter how clear the divine instructions are, we invariably fall into dispute and division shortly thereafter. If Allah had wished, none of this would have happened, but he decreed it to take place for a wisdom known only to him. So, when the difference and division occurs, some remain firm on belief and being obedient to Allah, while others go astray and end up being disobedient, disbelieving and being away from Allah. Believers are granted success and support by Allah so that they are guided to acts of obedience and the straight path, while rejecters are given the choice, but they chose disobedience and disbelief. And Allah does whatever he wills. The followers of Muhammad are of course also human and no exception to this rule, and not much time passed before the Muslims split into groups; those adhering to the original teachings and others who fell into having deviations in their belief and carrying out innovations in their actions. The difference is that the final message – unlike all the others that came before it which have all been lost or altered – is under divine guardianship. Allah has guaranteed its preservation, so that it will be kept intact, see [surah Al-Hijr (Thamûd’s Habitation): 9]. So, no matter how extreme and varied the deviations become, every Muslim – in fact every human – will have the chance to return to the original, unaltered words of Allah and the teachings of Muhammad. And this will be the case until the end of this world. Actually, when that final day is about to begin, Allah will remove the Qur’ân entirely from the earth. It will disappear from the pages of every printed or written version of the Qur’ân and disappear from the hearts of those who have learned it. May Allah protect us all from the trials of those times and aid us to rush to take advantage of his message before such a time is upon us.

  254. In verse 245 above, Allah mentioned the “good loan”. If one gives of his/her wealth in Allah’s cause, it is if you have loaned it to the most generous entity of all, and its return will be much larger than what you put forth. Here Allah urges us to take advantage of this great opportunity before it is too late – i.e., while we are still alive and healthy, before the Day of Resurrection and judgment after our death. On that day, there will be no exchange or business of any kind from which we might hope for some profit or return. There will be no wealth available with which to ransom ourselves from what we are facing. There will be no friend who can help us in any way nor any intercessor who will be able to reduce Allah’s punishment. The rejecters are indeed the unjust, the oppressive. There is no one greater in wrongdoing and oppression than those who Allah judges as disbelievers and rejecters on that day.

  255. Allah is the one and only deity. No one deserves deityship or our worship and to be given total obedience other than Allah. He is the ever-living, having all the perfect aspects of life in a manner fitting to his omnipotence and perfection. Though they have the same name, we cannot compare Allah’s life to our life or the life of anything we know. Allah’s attributes are unique to him and beyond anything we are capable of fully comprehending. We call them what Allah himself called them, as to do otherwise is to reject the words of our Creator, but we have to realize the limits of our knowledge in actually comprehending their precise nature. He is the maintainer of all life at all times and no drowsiness or sleep can ever occur to interfere with that ability. The heavens and earth and all that is in them belong completely to Allah. No one can ever stand before him to intercede for another except with his prior acceptance and permission. His knowledge encompasses everything that exists and includes the past all the way back to its beginning, the present and the future without any end. No one other than Allah has the ability to obtain any of this knowledge; we can only obtain what Allah chooses to give us. His Kursî is as wide as all creation. The Kursî is the place for the feet of the creator – and no one knows the precise nature of what that means except Allah most high, the knower of all things. It is much smaller than the `Arsh or throne of Allah. The magnitude of the entire universe which Allah created in relation to the Kursî is equivalent to that of a ring from your finger which is cast into the middle of a huge desert. Similarly, the magnitude of the Kursî (chair) in relation to the `Arsh (throne) is again like that of a small ring cast into the middle of a huge desert. From the little we know about the size of that part of Allah’s creation of which we are aware (the universe) – where light itself takes millions of years just to reach us from the distant stars – just try to imagine the magnitude of these two creations of Allah. All of this greatness is easy for Allah. He created and maintains all we know about and whatever else we do not know about without the slightest difficulty. He is high above all creation, both literally and in terms of his attributes of perfection. In Allah are combined all attributes of omnipotence, majesty and perfection. This is the greatest single verse in Allah’s final communication and it is referred to as “Âyatul-Kursî” or “The Verse of the Throne”.

  256. Islam does not and cannot come about from coercion. This is because Islam includes both the acts of submission and obedience to Allah (lit: islâm), and the inner conviction and belief in the truth of Allah’s messages to mankind (Îmân). Without inner conviction, any outward actions have no meaning or validity. So, while it would be possible to coerce someone to do the outward actions dictated by Islam, it would not be “islam” without the inner conviction and belief. Thus, the idea of forcing anyone to be a Muslim is both impossible and illegal, and that is the meaning of Allah’s statement, {“There is no compulsion to the way…}. The meaning is not, as many have incorrectly understood, that no one is ever compelled to do anything anywhere in the system of Islam. This is not true. There are very many cases in Islam – as there must be in any viable system for any human society – where compulsion exists. If a man fails to support his dependents such as his wife and children (or even a female relative with no other means of support), he can be compelled to do so. If a man occupies arable land for many years (more than three) and fails to exploit it, he can be compelled to vacate it and lose his right to it for another who will put it into production. If one fails or refuses to pay his annual Zakâh (the third pillar of Islam), the ruler can take it from him forcefully and levy a fine for his attempt at evasion. Such examples are too numerous to list. As for whether individuals will choose to accept Allah’s final message or not, Allah has made all things very clear and has guaranteed the preservation of his final message and its protection from being tampered with or modified. There is no role for compulsion or forced conversion here. Everyone has the choice to accept the truth which has come from Allah or to reject it, remaining upon whatever belief they have and living in peace with Islam and Muslims. Islam provides for this and includes detailed rulings on how Muslims must live and deal with populations in their midst for whom Allah has not decreed guidance. It’s difficult to find a better example of true pluralism before or after Islam.

  257. Allah is the ally or protector of the believers. He is their guardian, their friend and close to them. He takes them and guides them from the many ways of darkness and evil to the light of faith and righteousness. As for the rejecters, their only ally is the Tâghut. Tâghut means everything to which deity is falsely attributed and/or to which obedience and the right of legislation is given in contravention of Allah’s rulings. This could be anything from idols or fellow humans, living or dead, to which people ascribe attributes which only Allah possesses or to which they direct any acts of worship which only rightfully belong to him, or it could be the one from whom the rejecters accept beliefs, superstitions and rulings, but who has no authority from Allah. So for example, only Allah knows the unseen and what will come in the future. If anyone believes that a fortuneteller or “saint” can tell them about the future, they have committed an act of Shirk (polytheism) by attributing to this person what only belongs to Allah. Similarly, if any person believes that a particular human being speaks only the truth and whatever ruling he gives must be followed – even if it clearly contradicts Allah’s final message – such a person has worshipped other than Allah by accepting these dictates and has left faith and become a de facto rejecter of Allah’s message. A ruler such as Pharaoh who tells people that he is the ultimate source of law is an example of Tâghut. All they do for the rejecters is pull them away from the light of guidance to the many ways of darkness and misguidance. These are the ones bound to the fire and they will be in it forever.

  258. This is the story of the oppressive tyrant (Nimrod) who disputed with Prophet Ibrâhîm regarding the oneness and omnipotence of Allah. This was because Allah had given him power over his people and so he had become arrogant and misguided. He asked Ibrâhîm: “Who is your lord?” Ibrâhîm answered that our lord is the one who gives life to all creatures and so they live. Then, he takes that life away and they die. He alone possesses the power of life and death. Nimrod responded that he, too, controls life and death, meaning that he can kill whoever he wants and leave whoever he wants to continue living. Next, Ibrâhîm said that our lord brings the sun up in the east, so are you able to change this pattern Allah has set and bring it up from the west? The tyrant was defeated, had no further argument available to him and could not reply. This is the case with oppressors and tyrants – Allah does not guide them to the truth and what is right because of their arrogance.

  259. Allah mentions another story of a man who doubted that Allah will resurrect all the people after their death. Allah caused him to die and he remained dead for a hundred years. He was incapable of sensing this and thought he was only unconscious for a little while until he looked at his food and his donkey. The food was exactly how it was before he died, but the donkey was now just a pile of bones. Before his eyes, Allah reconstructed the skeletal structure of the donkey, covered it with flesh once again and brought the donkey back to life. After all he had witnessed, all doubt was removed about Allah’s power and the reality of our resurrection after death. And his story was a sign for others to also understand these realities. Most narrations indicate that the man was someone from the Children of Isrâ’îl and the town was Jerusalem after it had been destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar. All of its inhabitants had died or left, and all of its buildings had been destroyed. He sat pondering over what could possibly bring the town back after all this destruction. In fact, it was rebuilt and repopulated in the first 70 years of the 100 years during which he was dead.

  260. Ibrâhîm asked Allah to show him how the dead can be resurrected in order that his faith would be absolute and firm. Allah instructed him to gather four birds, gain their trust and then kill them and cut them into pieces. Then he had to take these pieces and put portions of them on the top of different mountains around him. Finally, Allah instructed him to call the birds. The birds were reassembled from their parts that had been placed far away from each other, brought back to life and then flew quickly back to where Ibrâhîm was standing. Of course, there was now no room for doubt whatsoever that Allah is fully capable of bringing anything that has died back to life. Allah reminded Ibrâhîm to understand that he is mighty and wise.

  261. Allah reminds us again about the “good loan” previously mentioned in verse (245). The greatest return and benefit a believer can hope for comes from spending or giving in Allah’s cause. Whether helping those who need help or contributing to the building and defense of the Islamic entity on earth, all of this is spending in the cause of Allah. Allah gives the analogy of a single seed of grain such as wheat, corn or the like. So spending a single coin in Allah’s cause is like planting a single seed of grain in fertile ground. It grows into a plant on which are seven ears. Each of these ears contains a hundred grains like the one that was planted. Allah multiplies the reward (return) for whomever he wishes according to the level of belief and sincerity in the heart of the giver. Allah’s generosity is immense. He is completely aware of those who deserve rewards and of what is hidden in the hearts of everyone. On this subject, the Prophet said in a Sahîh (authentic) hadîth:

    “Allah has defined the good deeds and the bad deeds and then he clarified (how their recording should occur): So, when anyone intends a good deed but does not do it, Allah records it as one complete good deed. If he intends a good deed and then in fact does it, Allah records it as ten equivalent good deeds or as high as 700 times, or even higher. As for one who intends a wicked act but does not do it, Allah records that as one complete good deed. If he intends a wicked act and actually does it, Allah records it as a single bad deed.”[Related by Al-Bukhârî]

  262. One of the signs that an act of giving was done with sincerity and purely for the sake of Allah is that the giver will not follow it up with acts or statements calling attention to his/her act of giving or making the receiver feel inferior or indebted for having received the charity. This is an indication of real faith. Those who have real faith will have no fear of what awaits them in the hereafter nor will they grieve over any material thing they may have missed in this life.

  263. Hurtful behavior following an act of generosity nullifies it. It would be better for such a person if they had kept their wealth and instead dealt with people appropriately, being kind. Allah has no need for our wealth. Rather, it is we who desperately need Allah’s acceptance, forgiveness and reward. If someone asks you for help out of need and you are unable or unwilling to help, a mere kind word to that effect and forbearance (if, for example, the asker was overly aggressive in their manner) is better than giving them material help but following it up with hurtful behavior. Allah is free of any need for your acts of giving (you are the one in need of Allah’s reward for them) and Allah is also patient and wise; he allows every chance for repentance and forgiveness, not rushing to condemn or punish anyone.

  264. So do not nullify your acts of giving with subsequent bad behavior or ill treatment of others. This is like one who gives of his wealth to show off and so that people will praise his generosity. Such a person does not truly believe in Allah nor are they certain about the Day of Judgment. Their analogy is like a smooth stone with dust on it.A strong rain falls on it and removes all of the dust, leaving it smooth and bare with nothing on it at all. This is like the one who does good deeds but does them for show. All his good deeds will be washed away before Allah on the day of resurrection and they will find no reward for all the wealth they spent in this life. Allah does not give the rejecter success in finding the right way – not in giving nor in any other affair.

  265. What a sad case it is to lose the great reward of giving in Allah’s path (for the needy or for the strengthening and defense of Islam) because of being insincere which makes one give only for show or follow it by mistreating the recipients. But the one who gives with sincerity and belief and good character, desiring only the acceptance of his act by Allah and believing fully in Allah’s promise is like a fertile garden. The garden is on a highland and abundant rain falls on it. It brings forth fruit and produce in abundance. And even if only light rain falls on it, it still brings forth abundant produce. This is like the wealth given by the sincere believers – it is accepted by Allah and met by a much larger reward, whether the wealth given was a lot or a little. Allah sees all the secrets and knows our outward actions and our inner intentions. All deeds are rewarded according to the sincerity of intention with which they were done.

  266. This verse is the analogy of a wealthy individual who starts out doing good deeds and living in obedience to Allah. This builds up a foundation or balance of good deeds – like a garden or orchard capable of producing abundant produce. But, after that the devil whispers and suggests and convinces him to disobey Allah and commit acts of wickedness. This is like the hot, fiery wind which dries out the fruit and kills the trees and plants in his garden. His wickedness later in life wipes out all the good deeds that went before, like the fiery wind wipes out the orchard. The man with the garden has become old and does not have any able-bodied offspring to re-plant the garden and he is no longer capable of doing it himself. So the once pious man who nullified his previous good deeds by wickedness later in life finds himself – at the time he is most in need of those good deeds, i.e. when standing before Allah for judgment – bankrupt and without anything or anyone to help him in that most desperate situation. Allah makes his signs clear through such analogies in order that we may think and ponder over them.

  267. Finally, after mentioning several clear ways good deeds can be invalidated or nullified by subsequent actions, Allah urges us once again to spend and give from our legally-acquired wealth and from what Allah himself brings forth for us from the earth – meaning agricultural products, minerals and the like – since we have no power to make them grow or to produce them except by Allah’s will. Finally, to make sure our good deed (of giving) has a completely pure intention and is an act of selflessness, Allah warns us against only giving things that we really do not want, selecting the worst grade or quality of items to give to others, though we would not like to accept it if someone offered something like it to us. If it was owed to us in a transaction, we would only accept it – if we did actually accept it – as a partial payment because of its poor quality and for fear of losing what is rightfully ours altogether. If it was given to us as a gift, we would only accept it – if we did actually accept it – out of shyness and to avoid embarrassing the giver. This verse is about the obligatory Zakâh. Zakâh, the third of five pillars of Islam. It is not voluntary and is not a “charity”. Rather, it is a right of the deserving recipient over that portion of the giver’s wealth and it is the duty of the ruler to collect it and deliver it to its rightful owners. So, they are like partners or co-owners of that wealth. It is not legitimate for one partner to appoint his own share from the best quality but assign the poorer quality to his partner’s share. Likewise, if you are obligated to give, for example, 1 kilogram of dates as Zakâh, it should be of a quality that you would accept for yourself if you were owed that same 1 kilogram of dates. How could we think something is acceptable for Allah (spending in Allah’s cause) when we would not even accept it ourselves as payment? Similarly, the Prophet forbid his collectors of Zakâh from taking the highest quality of the giver’s property, as that would also be an unfair division. Instead, he ordered his collectors to select from the middle or average quality, avoiding the best and the worst. Allah gave us everything we have and is in no need of our charities. He is deserving of all praise and gratitude for whatever conditions we may be in.

  268. Both miserliness and giving only the old, inferior, worn and/or unwanted articles in your possession when you do give are from the bad deeds enjoined by Shaytân (i.e. the devil). He tries to frighten you with the prospect of poverty and urges you to be stingy and cling to whatever you have. Generally, he urges you toward performing every kind of disobedience of Allah and toward acting in the opposite way of what is good and right. Allah, on the other hand, rather than frightening you with poverty, promises you forgiveness for your sins and plentiful sustenance. That is the end result, in reality, of sincerely giving of your wealth in Allah’s cause (to help the needy and/or to help the cause of Islam). Allah’s generosity is limitless, as is his complete knowledge of both our actions and the sincerity of our intentions behind them.

  269. It takes wisdom and sharp intellect to understand what was just said in the previous verses. Without knowledge, a person would think that if they possess $1000 and they give $100 in Allah’s cause that their wealth has been diminished by 10%. They are 10% poorer than they used to be. But, Allah informs us that the end result of such giving is forgiveness of our sins – which is priceless and cannot be quantified – and also abundant wealth, certainly in the hereafter and quite possibly in this life before the hereafter. In this regard, the Prophet said:

    “I tell you these things and remember them well, I can swear by them, no one’s wealth diminishes by charity.”

    [Related by At-Tirmidhî]The wisdom to be able to understand such things is priceless. If Allah grants you such wisdom, you have been given something great indeed. But no one will benefit from this wisdom except those whose intelligence has been lit up by Allah’s light and his guidance.

  270. Allah reminds us that he is completely aware of every good action any of us do, including giving of our wealth or binding ourselves to give in the future through an oath to do so. This reminder of Allah’s complete knowledge of such things also reminds us of his most generous rewards for those who do these actions with sincerity, seeking only Allah’s acceptance and in the hope of his promised reward. Finally, Allah reminds us of the fate of those who fail to act in obedience to him but instead disobey his commands, deny what he has informed us about or even engage in direct acts of worship of others along with Allah. The wrongdoers (oppressors) will have no helpers, meaning on the Judgment Day, who can save them from Allah’s punishment and his wrath.

  271. It is acceptable to give to the needy or to spend in the cause of Islam publicly such that others see you doing it, as long as there is no aspect of ostentation or showing off involved. In fact, in some cases it is preferable. For example, if there is a pressing need among the Muslims somewhere, such as a famine, and in a public gathering, people are attempting to collect funds to help those who are suffering, but the people are hesitant. In this situation, if one were to stand up and vocally make a generous donation this would be preferable to doing it later and in secret. This is because it could prompt others to follow suit and bring about something good. It could fall under the saying of the Prophet:

    “Whoever started a good tradition (or action) in Islam, will get its reward and the (same) reward of all those who do it after him…”[Related by Muslim]But, this is an exception to the general rule. In general, there is a difference between the preferability of doing things publicly versus privately based on whether they are obligatory or voluntary. So, for men, every obligatory prayer is best performed with the Muslims in the mosque. The extra prayers, however, are preferably done in the home and not in the mosque. This is how the Prophet always performed them and it is greater in reward. Similarly, the way of the Prophet with regard to the obligatory annual giving (Zakâh) is that it is publicly administered; collectors are hired and it is collected from those who are required to pay it and redistributed to those who need it. Neither the giving of Zakâh nor its distribution were private acts, as it was instituted by the Prophet and implemented by his immediate successors. Similarly, voluntary giving or charity aside from Zakâh is preferably given in secret as a general rule. As the Prophet said:

    “The best charity is when the right hand gives such that [even] the left hand is unaware of it.”

    [Related by Muslim]Allah is fully aware of all actions and all that is in the hearts (intentions). Nothing is hidden from him and he will reward each and every person according to that person’s actions – both external actions, such as giving of one’s wealth and internal actions, such as the purity of intention in doing so.

  272. Neither the Prophet nor the Muslims after him are responsible for the guidance or lack thereof of the people. Our duty is to deliver this message to the best of our ability. That includes both expressing it verbally and in written form as well as – and arguably more importantly so – manifesting it in our individual and collective behavior. As for whether a particular individual will be guided, that is entirely in Allah’s hands. He will open the heart and mind of whoever he wishes to the truth and grant them the success to comprehend and follow it. But if he does not decree guidance for another, there is nothing any of us can do about it. This is another example of why “forcing” someone to become a Muslim is not just illegal, rather it is quite literally impossible. The benefits of whatever sacrifices you make in terms of giving for Allah’s sake will come back to you. The believer gives seeking only Allah’s acceptance and the reward of everything given in this way will be full, with nothing being diminished from it. The phrase used here for seeking Allah’s acceptance and reward is “seeking Allah’s face”. This confirms Allah’s attribute of a face. It is not like the faces we know and is not like anything else we know, but its name is “face” nonetheless. It is of some nature appropriate to Allah’s majesty, omnipotence and perfection and utterly beyond our ability to comprehend, as is the case with all of Allah’s glorious names and attributes.

  273. Among those to whom your voluntary giving should be directed are those “restricted in Allah’s path”. This refers first of all to the migrants, meaning Muslims from Mecca or elsewhere who migrated to the new Islamic state in Madinah in obedience to the order of Allah and his messenger. Many of them gave up all they had and were cut off from their previous means of earning a living. Any Muslim in any age who made such a migration for Allah’s sake and saw his/her means of livelihood restricted because of it would fall into this category. Perhaps they moved to seek knowledge or to get a better Islamic education for their children or simply to move to a cleaner environment not filled with wickedness. As the Prophet said, “A Muslim is the one from whose tongue and hand the Muslims are safe and the migrant is the one who moved away from what Allah has proscribed (forbidden).” (Bukhari) He also mentioned that migration will continue until the end of this world and so its meaning is not restricted to the original migration of the Muslims to Madinah. Those who are unaware of the situation of such migrants may think they are fine and not in need. This is because of the patience they possess and because they do not bother people with their needs. So remember that whatever you give is fully known to Allah.

  274. Those who willingly give of their wealth “by night” meaning secretly and “by day” meaning publicly are mentioned in this verse. As mentioned previously, giving should be done in whichever of these two ways is most appropriate. Generally, obligatory giving is preferable when done publicly and collectively (as in the obligatory Zakâh, which in its original application was administered and enforced by the ruler) while voluntary giving is preferable when done secretly (as in giving to the needy where your “left hand is unaware of what your right hand is doing”) – but there can be exceptions in either case. Those who spend generously will have no fear about what awaits them in the hereafter nor any grief about any material thing they may have missed in this life. This is Allah’s divine legislation and his most wise organization of spending – both compulsory and organized/administered giving as well as voluntary and private/individual charity – in order to meet the needs of all those in need with dignity and honor. This epitomizes the cooperation and working together for all that is good which Allah ordered us to maintain in surah [Al-Mâ’idah (The Table): 2].

  275. Allah has forbidden all transactions involving interest in the most clear and serious terms and in fact declared war on it and on those who engage in it. When the potential evil of something outweighs any benefit, this is where Allah’s prohibition falls. Like the case of alcohol. Allah mentioned that even alcohol contains some benefit, such as relaxation, pleasure or profit from dealing in it, but along with this comes its immense harm such as violence (especially spousal abuse), poverty, loss of ambition as well as liver and brain damage, just to name a few. When the harm of something outweighs its benefits, Allah, in his wisdom and knowledge of our nature and our weaknesses, does not leave it to us to seek the benefits while avoiding the harm. In these clear-cut cases the answer is complete prohibition. Likewise with interest. You may look at a single transaction, like purchasing a home or car on an interest-based loan, and ask, “What is the harm?” It does not look that different from the Islamic alternative (installment purchase without interest) overall, so why the strict prohibition? But then look at the relationships between the industrialized world and the developing world. You can see entire nations virtually enslaved to interest-based loans. Their whole national product goes to just paying the interest on huge international loans they were given to “develop” their country while they cannot even pay down the principal, leaving little hope for the future. Then the international creditors step in and dictate to the victim countries regarding all sorts of social spending – help for those most in need – that they will no longer be allowed to do until their debt is paid under the euphemistic title of “austerity”. Changes (or manipulations) in the countries from which the loans originated which have nothing to do with the countries which borrowed, such as an increase in the interest rate, can devastate these countries through no fault of their own. None of this could have happened under Allah’s Sharî’ah. If they wanted to “invest” in developing countries they could only have done so in a just manner based on actual benefits and profit from the investment and not a fixed rate of interest. They could put forth money for the building of factories, dams, etc., but rather than receiving some fixed amount which may or may not be realistic, they would receive an agreed-upon percentage of the actual returns from the project. This maximizes the benefit for all while avoiding the possibility of injustice by either side. Part of Allah’s harsh description of those dealing in interest is that when all people are resurrected, such people will come out of their graves like one who is insane or possessed by the devil, unable even to stand normally. They are the ones who thought that their own logic and understanding were superior to Allah’s wisdom and orders. They questioned Allah’s prohibition saying, “Interest is just a form of buying and selling.” But Allah allowed buying and selling and absolutely forbid dealing in interest, so how could they be the same? If you have been dealing in interest and this information reaches you, you can repent and start afresh without any sin, keeping only your base capital and foregoing any interest owed to you. But any who return to dealing in interest after that are bound to the fire and in it forever.

  276. This is another case of true “accounting” with Allah. Those who deal in interest – like the industrialized countries making billions in profit from interest-based loans to developing countries – think they are clever and they are increasing their wealth. Likewise, such people believe that if they give in charity to help those in need that this is on the negative side of their balance sheet and amounts to a decrease in their wealth, and by extension their well-being. But Allah informs us that the truth of the matter is quite the opposite. In fact, he obliterates any benefit from wealth gained from exploitation and interest and multiplies the benefit and reward and any wealth given for his sake. Allah has no love for those who consistently reject the truth, the sinful.

  277. Planning for your future does not mean greedily clinging to every bit of wealth you can acquire, counting it up, hoarding it and refusing to give any of it in Allah’s cause. This is a flawed plan. If you want a good and secure future, start by believing in Allah and his messenger. Then seek every kind of good deed you can do to add to your scale on the Judgment Day. Include in that the dutiful performance of the five daily prayers in their time periods. But worship of Allah is not all individual and it is not all just between you and Allah. The third pillar of Islam (right after the profession of faith and prayer and before fasting Ramadân and pilgrimage to Mecca) is Zakâh. This is a public and collective activity. It is a pure act of worship and an interaction or transaction with others at the same time. Muslims are commanded to organize, under their leadership, the collection of this portion from people’s savings (and a few other categories of wealth, as mentioned previously) and to distribute it according to need. When we do all of this – as individuals and as a nation – we have nothing to fear regarding the coming events in the hereafter and no reason to regret any material thing we may have missed or given up in this life.

  278. Interest-based transactions were being practiced when Allah’s prohibition was transmitted through his messenger. It was stopped immediately and there was no allowance for ongoing transactions to continue or be completed. The Prophet said in his beautiful speech given during his Pilgrimage to Mecca:

    “… and all interest from the era of ignorance (Jâhiliyyah, the time before Islam) is nullified. And, the first interest transaction I hereby nullify is that of `Abbâs Ibn `Abdul-Muttalib (his uncle) ….”

    [Related by Ibn Hibbân]The only way to wrap up ongoing interest transactions was for the principal to move accordingly (i.e., be repaid) but the interest had to be dropped. The same principle applies to any Muslim today who deals in interest out of ignorance and then comes to realize that Allah has forbidden it.

  279. Imam Mâlik, one of the greatest legal scholars of all time, was once asked whether drinking alcohol was the most heinous of all sins because of all of the other sins and foolishness it leads to. After much contemplation, he responded that no, the most heinous of sins was dealing in interest. His proof was this verse in which Allah literally declares war on those who hear about Allah’s prohibition of interest and yet continue to deal in it. He cited this as proof saying that there is no other sin mentioned where Allah has used such language in describing his position toward those who disobey his command. However, if you did not know of this ruling or if irresponsible “scholars” have misled you into thinking the prohibited was lawful, the door to repentance is still open at the moment the knowledge reaches you. Just as the Prophet cut off interest immediately, without any delay or waiting period, so you must do when the knowledge is made clear to you. From that moment there can be no further exchange of any kind based on interest and you must do all you can to extricate yourself from any interest-based transactions you are already involved in, addressing only the principal and avoiding any interest.

  280. If you are the creditor in an interest-based transaction and you have now repented, you should take into consideration the condition of the one who owes you money. If they are in financial difficulty, you should give them additional time to pay – without of course adding anything to the total, as that would be the very interest you just repented from. Even better for you – if you only knew – is to just forgive the debt, if you are willing and able, and make that amount a charity from you to your debtor as part of your repentance and a way of seeking Allah’s forgiveness for what you did before. The same principle applies to any loan you are owed, even a lawful loan where interest was not involved. Note that this is specifically addressed to the creditor and the previous verses mentioned “those who consume Ribâ (interest)” which would also indicate the creditor. However, the prohibition extends to all parties to the interest-based transaction, whether paying or receiving the interest. The Prophet in an authentic hadîth invoked a curse on five parties for every interest-based transaction: the creditor, the borrower, the recorder (or scribe) and the two witnesses.

  281. So in everything you do or don’t do, say or don’t say, beware of that day when you will be returned to Allah – the day of recompense. It is not the day of repentance or the day of account taking, rather it is the day of recompense when the doers of good and the doers of evil will see the fitting return and result of what they themselves have done. You will be shown before Allah for a complete accounting of all of that. Allah will compensate every single person for all the good or evil they have sent forth without the slightest discrepancy or injustice. And Allah oppresses no one. How could that be, when Allah rewards every righteous deed with ten times its magnitude or more but only compensates wicked deeds as one? And Allah forgives much.

  282. Allah commands all who believe in him and follow the Prophet regarding any transaction which results in a debt or future obligation. Such transactions must be recorded in writing including the two parties, the amount and the date payment is due. This is clearly to avoid misunderstandings and disputes. The one who owes is the one who dictates the terms (to which they have already agreed) of the loan to the scribe, because this is his admission of the obligation which is upon him – there is no chance to claim later on that those are not the exact terms to which he agreed. Since not all populations are literate – and the Arabs who first received Allah’s final message were largely illiterate – Allah provides for the debt instrument to be written by a third party – a scribe. If the debtor is under a guardianship and not authorized to transact his own transactions, then his guardian will be the one that dictates the terms to be written. This can come about because the debtor was judged to be irresponsible by a judge due to wastefulness or reckless spending and his property was put under the care of an appointed guardian or because he is under the age of puberty, insane or otherwise incapacitated or just unable to speak. In any of these cases, his appointed guardian, representative or others must stand in and execute the contract on his behalf. Allah also commands that upon the recording of such an instrument, witnesses should be called to attest. Allah states that two men are preferable, but if they cannot be found then a man and two women should be used. This is Allah’s command of who to seek and use at witnesses in this case. It is not a general statement that makes two female witnesses to equal to one male witness. Note that in the transmission of the sayings and deeds of the Prophet– something where accuracy is far more important than a mere debt transaction – the narration of one female carries exactly the same weight as that of one male. Narrators are only rated based on their precision, reliability and piety. Gender is not even considered. Finally, Allah reminds us that this order is only for deferred transactions and does not include real-time exchanges. In that case, there is no order to write the transaction down, but such sales should also be witnessed.

  283. This verse gives some exceptions and a partial abrogation of the previous verse. First, if you are transacting a deferred transaction but you are travelling and cannot find witnesses or a scribe to document the transaction, as ordered in the previous verse, you can use collateral instead to ensure that the debt will be paid later. In this way, Allah abrogates the previous order to record and witness every such deferred transaction. In such a case (if you opt for a simple verbal agreement without any recording or witnessing), an obligation will fall upon the debtor, so let him fear Allah and repay his debt at the agreed-upon time. To do otherwise – to hide or lie about what took place – would be a serious sin and reflect a heart full of evil and Allah is fully aware of this. Note here the beauty of abrogation and how it gives a perfect final result every time – something which invalidates the futile arguments of those who claim there is no abrogation in the Qur’ân, thinking that they are exalting Allah above “changing his mind”. But, of course, this is not the case! An order to record in writing and witness every single deferred transaction, whether large or small, would have been a hardship if it had remained unmodified. On the other hand, if Allah just said from the beginning, “Do so if there is any mistrust” or, “except in cases where you trust each other”, the outcome would have been quite different. In that case, for a Muslim to ask his fellow Muslim to record and witness a debt obligation would imply mistrust, and friends or relatives would be shy to ask for such a thing – defeating the very purpose of the original order. By these two verses coming in this sequence, it is very easy for either of the parties to simply request, “Let’s do this in the best way, the one Allah ordered us to do before the permission to just agree verbally.” Thus, the precaution of recording and witnessing can be taken without slighting anybody or hurting any of the parties’ feelings. Allah’s legislation is nothing like human legislation. It is impossible to imagine a more perfect way this could have been done.

  284. When this verse was communicated, it was extremely distressful to the Muslims around the Prophet. It seemed to make believers culpable for mere thoughts or inclinations hidden within their hearts even if they were never acted upon. A group of them came to the Prophet and said:

    “O Messenger of Allah, we have been made responsible for things we are capable of performing: prayer, fasting, Jihâd and charity. But now this verse has been communicated to you and we are not capable of fulfilling it.” The Prophet answered them, “Do you wish to say something like the people of the two books said before, when they said, ‘We hear and we disobey’? Rather say, “We hear and we obey. Your forgiveness our Lord! Unto you is the destination.” And so they said it….” [Related by Muslim]

  285. When the Muslims said, “We hear and we obey. Your forgiveness our Lord! Unto you is the destination” as they had been ordered to do by Allah’s messenger, Allah revealed this verse. This was in praise of the belief of the Muslims, and recorded their statement of submission and obedience so it would permanently be a part of the Qur’ân which Muslims repeat in prayer and supplication to this day.

  286. After the obedience and vigilance of the Muslims described in the last two verses (those with the Prophet and all those who follow their way throughout all time), Allah clarified or modified the ramifications of verse 284 by revealing this verse. In this Verse we read: “Our lord! Do not hold us responsible if we forget or make a mistake,” to which Allah replied, “Yes!” And to “Our lord! And do not put a burden upon us as you put upon those before us” Allah again replied, “Yes!” And after “Our lord! And do not put upon us that which we have no power to fulfill” also Allah replied, “Yes!” And to ”Pardon us, forgive us and have mercy on us. You are our master, so aid us against the people who reject.” Allah replied, “Yes!” (The content of this note and the previous two notes is taken from an authentic narration of the Prophet’s words found in Sahîh Muslim). And so in Allah’s great mercy, every good deed is rewarded tenfold or more, as much as seven hundred fold. But every bad deed is counted as only a single bad deed. Also every righteous intention which is never acted upon is counted as the good deed which was intended and every evil intention which is never acted upon is forgiven and not counted at all. In fact, if the evil intention does not come to fruition because of a conscious effort for Allah’s sake, that actually becomes one good deed.

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